Share This Article:

Plasma cytokine profiles following subcutaneous implantation of titanium in mice

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:672KB) PP. 928-933
DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.69113    2,571 Downloads   3,835 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a titanium implant on immune response in mouse by monitoring change in plasma cytokine profiles. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6 (type 1 T helper cell-predominant) and BALB/c (type 2 T helper cell-predominant) mice were used. Each type was divided into an experimental and a control group: in the former, pure titanium implants (Φ 1 mm × 1 mm) were inserted into the back of the mice subcutaneously; in the latter, the wound was sutured closed with no insertion of an implant. Blood samples were collected before implantation and at 3 hr, 24 hr, 3 d, 1 mo, and 3 mo after implantation. Levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-23, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 were measured by multi-analyte enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Baseline cytokine levels were generally higher in the BALB/c mice than in their C57BL/6 counterparts. Cytokine levels showed only slight variation after implantation of titanium in ei-ther strain. No statistically significant differences in cytokine levels were detected, except for those of IL-6 and IL-10. Conclusion: The results showed that titanium implantation induced no clear Th1-, Th2-, or Th17-mediated immune response in either Th1-or Th2-predominant mice.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Oda, T. , Sasaki, H. , Ito, T. , Sekine, H. , Kato, T. , Yoshinari, M. and Yajima, Y. (2013) Plasma cytokine profiles following subcutaneous implantation of titanium in mice. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 6, 928-933. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2013.69113.

References

[1] Pohler, O.E. (2000) Unalloyed titanium for implants in bone surgery. Injury, 31, 7-13. doi:10.1016/S0020-1383(00)80016-9
[2] Schmidt, B.L., Perrott, D.H., Mahan, D., et al. (1998) The removal of plates and screws after Le Fort I osteotomy. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 56, 184-188. doi:10.1016/S0278-2391(98)90865-5
[3] Leonard, J.P., Waldburger, K.E. and Goldman, S.J. (1995) Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies against interleukin 12. The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 181, 381-386. doi:10.1084/jem.181.1.381
[4] Durham, S.R. and Till, S.J. (1998) Immunologic changes associated with allergen immunotherapy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 102, 157-164. doi:10.1016/S0091-6749(98)70079-X
[5] Clerici, M. and Shearer, G.M. (1993) A TH1→TH2 switch is a critical step in the etiology of HIV infection. Immunology Today, 14, 107-111. doi:10.1016/0167-5699(93)90208-3
[6] Liskmann, S., Vihalemm, T., Salum, O., et al. (2006) Correlations between clinical parameters and interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 levels in saliva from totally edentulous patients with peri-implant disease. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 21, 543-550.
[7] Duarte, P.M., de Mendonca, A.C., Máximo, M.B., et al. (2009) Effect of anti-infective mechanical therapy on clinical parameters and cytokine levels in human peri-implant diseases. Journal of Periodontology, 80, 234-243. doi:10.1902/jop.2009.070672
[8] Birkedal-Hansen, H. (1993) Role of cytokines and inflammatory mediators in tissue destruction. Journal of Periodontal Research, 28, 500-510. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0765.1993.tb02113.x
[9] Genco, R.J. (1992) Host responses in periodontal diseases: Current concepts. Journal of Periodontology, 63, 338-355. doi:10.1902/jop.1992.63.4s.338
[10] Schierano, G., Bassi, F., Gassino, G., et al. (2000) Cytokine production and bone remodeling in patients wearing overdentures on oral implants. Journal of Dental Research, 79, 1675-1682. doi:10.1177/00220345000790090701
[11] Javed, F., Al-Hezaimi, K., Salameh, Z., et al. (2011) Proinflammatory cytokines in the crevicular fluid of patients with peri-implantitis. Cytokine, 53, 8-12. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2010.08.013
[12] Candel-Martí, ME., Flichy-Fernández, AJ., Alegre-Domingo, T., et al. (2011) Interleukins IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and periimplant disease. Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal, 16, 518-521. doi:10.4317/medoral.16.e518
[13] Scott, P. (1991) IFN-γ modulates the early development of Th1 and Th2 responses in a murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The Journal of Immunology, 147, 3149-3155.
[14] Chensue, S.W., Ruth, J.H., Warmington, K., et al. (1995) In vivo regulation of macrophage 11-12 production during type 1 and type 2 cytokine-mediated granuloma formation. The Journal of Immunology, 155, 3546-3551.
[15] Haraguchi, S., Good, R.A., James-Yarish, M., et al. (1995) Differential modulation of Th1-and Th2-related cytokine mRNA expression by a synthetic peptide homologous to a conserved domain within retroviral envelope protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 92, 3611-3615. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.8.3611
[16] Tallima, H., Salah, M., Guirguis, FR., et al. (2009) Transforming growth factor-b and Th17 responses in resistance to primary murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Cytokine, 48, 239-245. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2009.07.581
[17] Lalor, P.A., Revell, P.A., Gray, A.B., et al. (1991) Sensitivity to titanium, a cause of implant failure? The Bone & Joint Journal, 73, 25-28.
[18] Hunt, J.A., Williams, D.F., Ungersbock, A., et al. (1994) The effect of titanium debris on soft tissue response. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 5, 381-383. doi:10.1007/BF00058968
[19] Katou, F., Andoh, N., Motegi, K., et al. (1996) Immunoinflammatory responses in the tissue adjacent to titanium miniplates used in the treatment of mandibular fractures. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, 24, 155-162. doi:10.1016/S1010-5182(96)80049-7
[20] Smith, D., Lugowski, S., McHugh, A., et al. (1997) Systemic metal ion levels in dental implant patients. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 12, 828-834.
[21] Prete, G.D., Carli, M.D., Almerigogna, F., et al. (1993) Human IL10 is produced by both type 1 helper (Thl) and type 2 helper (Th2) T cell clones and inhibits their antigen-specific proliferation and cytokine production. The Journal of Immunology, 150, 353.
[22] Groux, H., O’Garra, A., Bigler, M., et al. (1997) ACD4+ T-cell subset inhibits antigen-specific T-cell responses and prevents colitis. Nature, 389, 737-742. doi:10.1038/39614
[23] Opal, S.M. and DePalo, V.A. (2000) Anti-inflammatory cytokines. Chest, 117, 1162-1172. doi:10.1378/chest.117.4.1162
[24] Afzali, B., Lombardi, G., Lechler, RI., et al. (2007) The role of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) in human organ transplantation and autoimmune disease. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 148, 32-46. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2007.03356.x
[25] Yamashita, K., Sakai, M., Takemoto, N., et al. (2009) Attenuation of delayed-type hypersensitivity by fullerene treatment. Toxicology, 261, 19-24. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2009.04.034
[26] Leopold, S.S., Berger, R.A., Patterson, L., et al. (2000) Serum Titanium level for diagnosis of a failed, metalbacked patellar component. The Journal of Arthroplasty, 15, 938-943. doi:10.1054/arth.2000.6632
[27] Wappelhorst, O., Kühn, I., Heidenreich, H., et al. (2002) Transfer of selected elements from food into human milk. Nutrition, 18, 316-322. doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(01)00798-5

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.