Recent Trends of Fire Occurrence in Sumatra (Analysis Using MODIS Hotspot Data): A Comparison with Fire Occurrence in Kalimantan


MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) hotspot and precipitation data for the most recent 11-year period (2002 to 2012) were analyzed to elucidate recent trends in the seasonal and spatial fire occurrence in Sumatra and the relationship with precipitation. Using a latitude line of S 0.5°, Sumatra was divided into two regions, N. (north) and S. (south) Sumatra. Different trends in seasonal fire occurrence were discussed and further defined by considering two different precipitation patterns. Analysis of hotspot (fire) data was carried out using 0.5° × 0.5° grid cells to evaluate recent trends of spatial fire occurrence. Analysis results of hotspot and precipitation data were also tallied every 10-day to find the relationship between seasonal fire occurrence and the dry season. Standard deviation (SD) and variance (V) were then used to evaluate fire occurrences in Sumatra and Kalimantan objectively. The relatively mild fire occurrence tendency in Sumatra compared to Kalimantan could be the result of different stages of forest development or the high deforestation rate in Sumatra compared with Kalimantan. This paper also shows that the two different seasonal fire activities in N. and S. Sumatra were closely related to the two different dry season types: a winter and summer dry season type (WD & SD) in N. Sumatra, and a summer dry season type (SD) in S. Sumatra. Extreme fire occurrences in the Dumai region in 2005 and Palembang region in 2006 could be partially explained by a severe drought occurrence enhanced by two different kinds of El Nino events.

Share and Cite:

Yulianti, N. , Hayasaka, H. & Sepriando, A. (2013). Recent Trends of Fire Occurrence in Sumatra (Analysis Using MODIS Hotspot Data): A Comparison with Fire Occurrence in Kalimantan. Open Journal of Forestry, 3, 129-137. doi: 10.4236/ojf.2013.34021.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Aldrian, E., & Susanto, R. D. (2003). Identification of three dominant rainfall regions within Indonesia and their relationship to sea surface temperature. International Journal Climatology, 23, 14351452.
[2] Ashok, K., Behera, S. K., Rao, S. A., Weng, H., & Yamagata, T. (2007). El Nino Modoki and its possible teleconnection. Journal of Geo physical Research, 112, C11007.
[3] Badan Pusat Statistik (2010). Trends of the selected socioeconomic indicators of Indonesia. Jakarta: BPSStatistic Indonesia.
[4] Chang, P., Wang, Z., McBride, J., & Liu, C. H. (2005).Annual cycle of Southeast AsiaMaritime Continent rainfall and the asymmetric mon soon transition. Journal Climate, 18, 287301.
[5] Dennis, R. (1999). A review of fire projects in Indonesia (19821998). Jakarta, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).
[6] Fearside, P. M. (1997). Transmigration in Indonesia: Lessons from its environmental and social impacts. Environmental Management, 21, 553570.
[7] Furukawa, H. (2004). The ecological destruction of coastal peat wetlands in Insular Southeast Asia. In H. Furukawa, M. Nishibuchi, Y. Kono, & Kaida, Y. (Eds.), Ecology destruction, health, and devel opment: Advancing Asian paradigms (pp. 3172). Nagoya: Kyoto University Press.
[8] Harris, N. L., Brown, S., Hagen, S. C., Saatchi, S. S., Petrova, S., Salas, W., Hansen, M. C., Potapov, P. V., & Lotsch, A. (2012). Baseline map of carbon emissions from deforestation in tropical regions. Sci ence, 336, 15731576.
[9] Indonesia Ministry of Forestry (2012). Forest statistics in 2011. Jakarta: Directorate General of Forestry Plantology.
[10] Japan Agency for MarineEarth Science and Technology (2013). MODOKI ENSO: A new phenomenon is found in the Tropical Pa cific.
[11] Jauhiainen, J., Hooijer, A., & Page, S. E. (2012). Carbon dioxide emis sions from an Acacia plantation on peatland in Sumatra, Indonesia. Biogeosciences, 9, 617630.
[12] Joosten, H., TapioBistrom, M., & Tol, S. (2012). Peatlands—Guid ance for climate change mitigation through conservation, rehabilita tion and sustainable use. Rome: The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Wetlands International.
[13] Langner, A., & Siegert, F. (2009). Spatiotemporal fire occurrence in Borneo over a period of 10 Years. Global Change Biology, 15, 4862.
[14] Margono, B. A., Turubanova, S., Zhuravleva, I., Potapov, P., Tyukav ina, A., Baccini, A., Goetz, S., & Hansen, M. C. (2012). Mapping and monitoring deforestation and forest degradation in Sumatra (In donesia) using Landsat time series data sets from 1990 to 2010. En vironmental Research Letters, 7, 034010.
[15] Miettinen, J., Hooijer, A., Tollenaar, D., Page, S., Malins, C., Vernim men, R., Shi, C., & Liew, S. C. (2012). Historical analysis and pro jection of oil palm plantation expansion on peatland in Southeast Asia. Washington DC: International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT).
[16] Miettinen, J., Shi, C., & Liew, S. C. (2011a). Deforestation rates in insular Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2010. Global Change Bi ology, 17, 22612270.
[17] Miettinen, J., Shi, C., & Liew. S. C. (2011b). Influence of peatland and land cover distribution on fire regimes in insular Southeast Asia. Re gional Environmental Change, 11, 1912011.
[18] Oldeman, L. R., Darwis, S. N., & Las, I. (1979). An agroclimatic map of Sumatra. Bogor: Central Research Institute for Agriculture.
[19] Putra, E. I., & Hayasaka, H. (2011). The effect of the precipitation pattern of the dry season on peat fire occurrence in the Mega Rice Project area, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Tropics, 19, 145156.
[20] Saharjo, B. H. (2006). Fire behavior in Pelalawan peatland, Riau Province. Biodiversitas, 7, 9093.
[21] Siegert, F., Ruecker, G., Hinrichs, A., & Hoffmann, A. A. (2001). In creased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Nino. Nature, 414, 437440.
[22] Stolle, F., Chomitz, K. M., Lambin, E. F., & Tomich, T. P. (2003). Land use and vegetation fires in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management, 179, 277292.
[23] Tacconi, L. (2003). Fire in Indonesia: Causes, costs and policy impli cation. Bogor: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).
[24] Takahashi, H., Usup, A., Hayasaka, H., & Limin, S. H. (2007). Over view of hydrological aspects for recent 10 years in the basins of River Sebangau and Kahayan. Environmental Conservation and Land Use Management of Wetland Ecosystem in Southeast Asia. Annual Report for April 2006March 2007.
[25] Uryu, Y., Mott, C., Foedad, N., Yulianto, K., Budiman, A., Setiabudi, Takakai, F., Nursamsu, S., Purastuti, E., Fadhli, N., Hutajulu, C. M. B, Jaenicke, J., Hatano, R., Siegert, F., & Stuwe, M. (2008). Defor estation, forest degradation, biodiversity loss and CO2 emissions in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia. Jakarta: World Wide Fund (WWF) Indonesia.
[26] Usup, A., Hashimoto, Y., Takahashi, H., & Hayasaka, H. (2004). Com bustion and thermal characteristics of peat fire in tropical peatland in Central Kalimantan. Tropics, 14, 119.
[27] Vadrevu, K. P., & Justice, C. O. (2011). Vegetation fires in the Asian region: Satellite observational needs and priorities. Global Environ mental Research, 15, 6576.
[28] Wetlands (2003). Maps of area of peatlands distribution and carbon content in Sumatra. Bogor: Wetlands InternationalIndonesia Pro gramme.
[29] Yulianti, N., & Hayasaka, H. (2013). Recent active fire under El Nino conditions in Kalimantan, Indonesia. American Journal of Plants Science, 4, 685696.
[30] Yulianti, N., Hayasaka, H., & Usup, A. (2012). Recent forest and peat fire trends in Indonesia, the latest decade by MODIS hotspot data. Global Environmental Research, 16, 105116.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.