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Signal Transduction Pathways Mediated by Secreted and Non-Secreted Forms of Intact Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and Its 1-97 N-Terminal Fragment in PC-3 Human Prostate Cancer Cells

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DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.48152    2,606 Downloads   3,752 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT


Our previous results indicated that both the secreted and the intracellular form of full length and 1-97 N-terminal fragment of IGFBP-3 induce apoptosis in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells in an IGF-dependent and independent manner. This study was undertaken to delineate possible down-stream signaling pathways that are involved in this process. Intact IGFBP-3 and its N-terminal 1-97 fragments with or without a signal propeptide were fused to YFP and expressed in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. In some cases, the putative IGF-binding site was presented in full length IGFBP-3 and its N-terminal fragment was also mutated. Extent of apoptosis was quantified using FACS. Up-regulation of total Stat-1 and activation of phospho-Stat-1 were shown by western blot. TGF-β signal was measured by luciferase reporter assay. Results from inhibitor studies indicated that both the Caspase 8 and caspase 9 pathways are involved in IGFBP-3 (non-secreted form) which induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Exogenous addition of IGFBP-3 to PC-3 cells increased Stat-1 protein expression/tyrosine phosphorylation. Interestingly, results also showed that knockdown of Stat-1 by siRNA potentiated the IGFBP-3 induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells. In addition, both full-length IGFBP-3 and its 1-97 Nterminal fragments inhibited TGF-β signaling in these cells. This is the first report that compares the signal transduction pathways involved in apoptotic pathways mediated by IGFBP-3 in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. Non-secreted form of full length IGFBP-3 and its N-terminal fragments induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells via activation of caspase 8 and caspase 9. Although, only non-secreted form of IGFBP-3 is involved in inducing apoptosis in PC-3 cells via caspase 8 and caspase 9 activation pathways but both secreted and non-secreted forms of IGFBP-3 are involved in modulating Stat-1 and TGF-β pathways to induce apoptotic actions in PC-3 cells. Non-secreted intact IGFBP-3 and its N-terminal fragments induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells via activation of caspase 8 and caspase 9 pathways. Modulation in STAT-1 and TGF-β pathways may also be important for IGFBP-3 induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells in general. These studies clearly demonstrate that secreted and non-secreted FL and 1-97 N-terminal fragments induce apoptosis in PC-3 cells by regulating different mechanistic pathways.


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

H. Shahjee, B. Kefas, N. Bhattacharyya and M. Radwan, "Signal Transduction Pathways Mediated by Secreted and Non-Secreted Forms of Intact Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and Its 1-97 N-Terminal Fragment in PC-3 Human Prostate Cancer Cells," Journal of Cancer Therapy, Vol. 4 No. 8, 2013, pp. 1290-1297. doi: 10.4236/jct.2013.48152.

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