A Discrete-Time Traffic and Topology Adaptive Routing Algorithm for LEO Satellite Networks

DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.41005   PDF   HTML     6,150 Downloads   10,466 Views   Citations


“Minimizing path delay” is one of the challenges in low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite network routing algo-rithms. Many authors focus on propagation delays with the distance vector but ignore the status information and processing delays of inter-satellite links. For this purpose, a new discrete-time traffic and topology adap-tive routing (DT-TTAR) algorithm is proposed in this paper. This routing algorithm incorporates both inher-ent dynamics of network topology and variations of traffic load in inter-satellite links. The next hop decision is made by the adaptive link cost metric, depending on arrival rates, time slots and locations of source-destination pairs. Through comprehensive analysis, we derive computation formulas of the main per-formance indexes. Meanwhile, the performances are evaluated through a set of simulations, and compared with other static and adaptive routing mechanisms as a reference. The results show that the proposed DT-TTAR algorithm has better performance of end-to-end delay than other algorithms, especially in high traffic areas.

Share and Cite:

W. Jiang and P. Zong, "A Discrete-Time Traffic and Topology Adaptive Routing Algorithm for LEO Satellite Networks," International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2011, pp. 42-52. doi: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.41005.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. Farserotu and R. Prasad, “A Survey of Future Broadband Multimedia Satellite Systems, Issues and Trends,” IEEE Wireless Communication Magazine, Vol. 38, No. 6, 2000, pp. 128-133. doi:10.1109/35.846084
[2] T. Taleb, N. Kato and Y. Nemoto, “Recent Trends in IP/NGEO Satellite Communication Systems: Transport, Routing, and Mobility Management,” IEEE Wireless Communication Magazine, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2005, pp. 63-69.
[3] T. Gayraud and P. Berthou, “Research Article: A QoS Architecture for DVB-RCS Next Generation Satellite Networks,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol. 2007, 2007, pp. (58484)1-9.
[4] R. E. Sheriff, A. Donner and A. Vanelli-Coralli, “Satellite Communications,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol. 2007, 2007, pp. (058964)1-2.
[5] F. Alagoz, O. Korcak and A. Jamalipour, “Exploring the Routing Strategies in Next-Generation Satellite Networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2007, pp. 79-88. doi:10.1109/MWC.2007.386616
[6] M. Werner, “A Dynamic Routing Concept for ATM Based Satellite Personal Communication Networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 15, No. 8, October 1997, pp. 1636-1648. doi:10.1109/49.634801
[7] M. Werner, C. Delucchi, G. Maral and J. J. D. Ridder, “ATM-Based Routing in LEO/MEO Satellite Networks with Intersatellite Links,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1997, pp. 69-82. doi:10.1109/49.553679
[8] E. Ekici, I. F. Akyildiz and M. D. Bender, “A Distributed Routing Algorithm for Datagram Traffic in LEO Satellite Networks,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2001, pp. 137-147. doi:10.1109/90.917071
[9] J. Sun and E. Modiano, “Routing Strategies for Maximizing Throughput in LEO Satellite Networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2004, pp. 273-286. doi:10.1109/JSAC.2003.819975
[10] E. Papapetrou, S. Karapantazis and F. N. Pavlidou, “Distributed On-Demand Routing for LEO Satellite Systems,” Computer Networks, Vol. 51, No. 15, 2007, pp. 4356-4376. doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2007.05.008
[11] T. Tarik, M. Daisuke and A. Jamalipour, “Explicit Load Balancing Technique for NGEO Satellite IP Networks with On-Board Processing Capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2009, pp. 281-293. doi:10.1109/TNET.2008.918084
[12] Y. Rao and R.-C. Wang, “Agent-Based Load Balancing Routing for LEO Satellite Networks,” Computer Networks, Vol. 54, No. 17, 2010, pp. 3187-3195. doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2010.06.019
[13] C. Chen and E. Ekici, “A Routing Protocol for Hierarchical LEO/MEO Satellite IP Networks,” Wireless Networks, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2005, pp. 507-521. doi:10.1007/s11276-005-1772-1
[14] Z. Y. Sheng, “Queuing Theory and Applications in Modern Communications,” Posts & Telecommunications Press, Beijing, 2007.
[15] L. Wood, A. Clerget, I. Andrikopoulos, G. Pavlou and W. Dabbous, “IP Routing Issues in Satellite Constellation Networks,” International Journal of Satellite Communications, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2001, pp. 69-92. doi:10.1002/sat.655
[16] W. A. Bukhsh, B. L. G. Jonsson and P. Persson, “Element Position Perturbation for a Narrow Spot Beam with Applications to Satellite Communication Antennas,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 104, 2010, pp. 283-295. doi:10.2528/PIER10040602
[17] O. Korcak and F. Alagoz, “Virtual Topology Dynamics and Handover Mechanisms in Earth Fixed LEO Satellite Systems,” Computer Networks, Vol. 53, No. 9, 2009, pp. 1497-1511. doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2009.01.010
[18] J. F. Wang, L. Li and M. T. Zhou, “Topological Dynamics Characterization for LEO Satellite Networks,” Computer Networks, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2007, pp. 43-53. doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2006.04.010
[19] M. D. Voilet, “The Development and Application of a Cost per Minute Metric of the Evaluation of Mobile Satellite Systems in a Limited-Growth Voice Communication Market,” Master’s Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1995.
[20] J. Banks, et al., “Discrete-Event System Simulation,” China Machine Press, Beijing, 2005.
[21] K S. Trivedi, “Probability & Statistics with Reliability, Queuing, and Computer Science Application,” Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, 1982.
[22] W. J. Jiang and P. Zong, “Prediction and Compensation of Sun Transit in LEO Satellite Systems,” Proceedings of International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing, Vol. 3, Shenzhen, 12-14 April 2010, pp. 495-499. doi:10.1109/CMC.2010.206
[23] O. Korcak, “Routing and Network Mobility Management in Next Generation Satellite Networks,” Ph.D. Thesis, Bogazici University, Bebek, 2009.
[24] S. R. Pratt, R. A. Raines, C. E. Fossa Jr. and M. A. Temple, “An Operational and Performance Overview of the IRIDIUM Low Earth Orbit Satellite System,” IEEE Communications Surveys, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1999, pp. 2-10. doi:10.1109/COMST.1999.5340513

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.