Synthesis and Characterization of Polypyrrole (PPy) Thin Films
M. A. Chougule, S. G. Pawar, P. R. Godse, R. N. Mulik, Shashwati Sen, V. B. Patil
DOI: 10.4236/snl.2011.11002   PDF   HTML   XML   20,226 Downloads   44,592 Views   Citations


Polypyrrole (PPy) was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization technique using monomer pyrrole and ammo-nium persulphate as an oxidant in a ratio of 1:1. Thin films of polypyrrole were prepared by dissolving polypyrrole in mcresol and cast using spin coating technique on glass substrates. Thin films of polypyrrole were characterized by X ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), UV visible spectroscopy and electrical resistivity by four probe method. The XRD spectra showed that the polypyrrole is amorphous in nature. SEM studies revealed a uniform granular structure of PPy. The FTIR spectra shows that the presence of all characteristics absorption peaks of polypyrrole that is, 890 cm?1 (=C–H out-of-plane vibration), 1040 cm?1 (=C–H in-plane vibration), 1170 cm?1 (N–C stretch bending) and 1410 cm?1 (pyrrole ring vibration). UV visible study shows PPy films exhibit absorption peak at 446 nm (2.77 eV). Room temperature electrical resistivity of PPy is in the critical regime of the metal –to –insulator (M-I) transition.

Share and Cite:

M. Chougule, S. Pawar, P. Godse, R. Mulik, S. Sen and V. Patil, "Synthesis and Characterization of Polypyrrole (PPy) Thin Films," Soft Nanoscience Letters, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2011, pp. 6-10. doi: 10.4236/snl.2011.11002.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. C. Vidal, E. Garcia and J. R. Castillo, “In situ Preparation of a Cholesterol Biosensor: Entrapment of Cholesterol Oxidase in an Overoxidized Polypyrrole Film Electrodeposited in a Flow System: Determination of Total Cholesterol in Serum,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 385, No. 1-3, 1999, pp. 213-222. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(98)00838-1
[2] T. E. Campbell, A. J. Hodgson and G. G. Wallace, “Incorporation of Erythrocytes into Polypyrrole to Form the Basis of a Biosensor to Screen for Rhesus (D) Blood Groups and Rhesus (D) Antibodies,” Electroanalysis, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1999, pp. 215-222. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4109(199904)11:4<215::AID-ELAN215>3.0.CO;2-#
[3] D. Kincal, A. Kamer, A. D. Child and J. R. Reynold, “Conductivity Switching in Polypyrrole-Coated Textile Fabrics as Gas Sensors,” Synthetic Metals, 92, 1998, pp. 53-55. doi:10.1016/S0379-6779(98)80022-2
[4] N. T. Kemp, G. U. Flanagan, A. B. Kaiser, H. J. Trodahl, B. Chapman, A. C. Partridge and R. G. Buckley, “Temperature-Dependent Conductivity of Conducting Polymers Exposed to Gases,” Synthetic Metals, Vol. 101, No. 1-3, 1999, pp. 434-435. doi:10.1016/S0379-6779(98)01118-7
[5] C. Jér?me, D. Labaye, I. Bodart and R. Jér?me, “Electrosynthesis of Polyacrylic/Polypyrrole Composites: Formation of Polypyrrole Wires,” Synthetic Metals, Vol. 101, No. 1-3, 1999, pp. 3-4. doi:10.1016/S0379-6779(98)00524-4
[6] E. Smela, “Microfabrication of PPy Microactuators and Other Conjugated Polymer Devices,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1999, pp. 1-18. doi:10.1088/0960-1317/9/1/001
[7] S. C. Yang, H. Liu, R. L. Clark, PCT Int. Application, WO 99 22, 380 (Cl.H01 B1/00).
[8] T. Takamatsu, Y. Taketani, Jpn. Kokai. Tokyo Koho JP11 121, 279 [99 121,279]
[9] Y Kojima, H. Kamikawa, T. Takamatsu, Jpn. Kokai. Tokyo Koho JP11 121, 280[99 121,280].
[10] T. A. Skotheim, “Handbook of Conducting Polymers,” Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986.
[11] T. A. Skotheim, R. Elsenbaumer and J. Reynolds, “Hand-Book of Conducting Polymers,” Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998.
[12] G. G. Wallace, G. Spinks and P. R. Teasdale, “Conductive Electroactive Polymers,” Technomic, New York, 1997.
[13] J. O. Iroh and C. Williams, “Formation of Thermally Stable Polypyrrole-Naphthalene/Benzene Sulfonate-Car- bon Fiber Composites by an Electrochemical Process,” Synthetic Metals, Vol. 99, No. 1, 1999, pp. 1-8. doi:10.1016/S0379-6779(98)00160-X
[14] W. Su and J. O. Iroh, “Effects of Electrochemical Process Parameters on the Synthesis and Properties of Polypyrrole Coatings on Steel,” Synthetic Metals, Vol. 95, No. 3, 1998, pp. 159-167. doi:10.1016/S0379-6779(97)04112-X
[15] J. R. Reynolds, H. Ly, F. Selampinar and P. J. Kinlen, “Controlled Drug and Biomolecule Release from Electroactive Host Polymer Systems,” Polymer Preprints, Vol. 40, No. 1, 1999, p. 307.
[16] W. K. Lu and R. A. Elsenbaumer, “The Corrosion Protection of Metal by Conductive Polymers II—Pitting Corrosion,” Annual Technical Conference—Society of Plastics Engineers, Vol. 56, No. 2, 1998, pp. 1276-1281.
[17] H. J. Kharat, K. P. Kakade, P. A. Savale, K. Dutta, P. Ghosh and M. D. Shirsat, “Synthesis of Polypyrrole Films for the Development of Ammonia Sensor,” Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 18, No. 5,2007, pp. 397- 402. doi:10.1002/pat.903
[18] B. Tian and G. Zerbi, “Lattice-Dynamics and Vibrational- Spectra of Polypyrrole,” Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 92, No. 6, 2009, pp. 3886-3891. doi:10.1063/1.457794
[19] K. Arora, A. Chaubey, R. Singhal, R. P. Singh, M. K. Pandey, S. B. Samanta., B. D. Malhotra and S. Chand, “Application of Electrochemically Prepared Polypyrrole- Polyvinyl Sulphonate Films to DNA Biosensor,” Bio- sensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 21, No. 9, 2006, 1777- 1783. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2005.09.002
[20] R. E. Partch, S. G. Gangoli, E. Matijevic, W. Cai and S. Arajs, “Conducting Polymer Composites I: Surface-Induced Polymerization of Pyrrole on Iron(III) and Cerium (IV) Oxide Particles,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 144, No. 1, 1991, pp. 27-35. doi:10.1016/0021-9797(91)90234-Y
[21] J. Y. Ouyang and Y. F. Li, “Great Improvement of Poly- pyrrole Films Prepared Electrochemically from Aqueous Solutions by Adding Nonaphenol Polyethyleneoxy (10) Ether,” Polymer, Vol. 38, No. 15, 1997, pp. 3997-3999. doi:10.1016/S0032-3861(97)00087-6
[22] L. E. Alexander, “X-ray Diffraction Methods in Polymer Science,” John Wiley, New York, 1969.
[23] K. Cheah, M. Forsyth and V.-T. Truong, “An XRD/XPS Approach to Structural Change in Conducting PPy,” Synthetic Metals, Vol. 101, No. 1-3, 1999, p. 19. doi:10.1016/S0379-6779(98)00790-5
[24] P. Lemon and J. Haigh, “The Evolution of Nodular Polypyrrole Morphology during Aqueous Electrolytic Deposition: Influence of Electrolyte Gas Discharge,” Materials Research Bulletin, Vol. 34, No. 5, 1999, pp. 665-672. doi:10.1016/S0025-5408(99)00069-0
[25] K. Cheah, M. Forsyth and V.-T. Truong, “Ordering and Stability in Conducting Polypyrrole,” Synthetic Metals, Vol. 94, No. 2,1998, pp. 215-219. doi:10.1016/S0379-6779(98)00006-X
[26] B. D. Cullity, “Elements of X-Ray Diffraction,” Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc., London, 1978.
[27] Z. L. Wang, X. Y. Kong, Y. Ding, P. Gao, W. L. Hughes, R. Yang and Y. Zhang, “Semiconducting and Piezoelectric Oxide Nanostructures Induced by Polar Surfaces,” Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 14, No. 10, 2004, pp. 943-956. doi:10.1002/adfm.200400180
[28] H. Shiigi, M. Kishimoto, H. Yakabe, B. Deore and T. Nagaoka, “Highly Selective Molecularly Imprinted Overoxidized Polypyrrole Colloids: One-Step Preparation Technique,” Analytical Sciences, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2002, pp. 41-44. doi:10.2116/analsci.18.41
[29] M. Leclerc, G. D’Aparno and G. Zotti, “Structure-Property Relationships in Polyaniline Derivatives,” Synthetic Metals, Vol. 55, No. 2-6, 1993, pp. 1527-1532. doi:10.1016/0379-6779(93)90279-6
[30] F. Zuo, M. Angelopoulos, A. G. Mac Diarmid and A. J. Epstein, “Transport Studies of Protonated Emeraldine Polymer: A Granular Polymeric Metal System,” Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, Vol. 36, No. 5, 1987, 3475-3478. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.36.3475
[31] A. Kobayashi, H. Ishikawa, K. Amano, M. Satoh and E. Hasegawa, “Electrical Conductivity of Annealed Polyaniline,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 74, No. 1, 1993, pp. 296-299. doi:10.1063/1.354106
[32] N. F. Mott and E. Davis, “Electronic Processes in Noncrystalline Materials,” Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1979.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.