Share This Article:

Assessment of Wastewater Quality of Drains for Irrigation

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:761KB) PP. 937-945
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.49108    6,543 Downloads   9,589 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Rapid industrialization and overpopulation have stimulated increase in waste water both domestic and industrial. Due to lack of inefficient sewerage system and absence of treatment plants, the wastewater is discharged into drainage systems causing environmental and health implications. At various points, the wastewater of these drains is used for irrigation purposes. This study characterizes the effluent of major drains of Lahore city and assesses its suitability for irrigation. Wastewater samples were collected from drains in winter and spring seasons and analyzed for various parameters of special concern to irrigation. TSS, oil and grease, BOD, COD, chloride, TDS, sodium, SAR, bicarbonate ions, EC, iron, Copper and Nickel were found to be varied in concentration in different drains when compared with NEQS (National Environment Quality Standards) and FAO guidelines for irrigation in both seasons. Regular monitoring and proper treatment of wastewater before discharging into the drains can reduce the pollution in these drains.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Hamid, M. Zeb, A. Mehmood, S. Akhtar and S. Saif, "Assessment of Wastewater Quality of Drains for Irrigation," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 9, 2013, pp. 937-945. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.49108.

References

[1] GOP, “Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan,” 2012. http://www.census.gov.pk/
[2] Economic Adviser’s Wing, Finance Division, Government of Pakistan. “Highlights: Pakistan Economic Survey 2010-2011,” 2011, pp. 1-11.
[3] E. Naeem, “An Investigation of the Characteristics of Effluent Mixing in Stream,” University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, 2009.
[4] D. Pay, A. S. Christopher, S. L. Raschid, R. Mark and B. Akica, “Wastewater Irrigation and Health; Assessing and Mitigating Risk in Low-Income Countries,” In: Non-Pathogenic Trade-Offs of Wastewater Irrigation, Earthscan, London, 2010, pp. 101-126.
[5] WASA, “Presentation on the Initiative Taken in WASA Lahore Regarding Benchmarking of UWSS,” Water and Sanitation Agency, Lahore, 2007.
[6] IPD, “An Atlas: Surface Water Industrial and Municipal Pollution in Punjab,” Irrigation and Power Department, Directorate of Land Reclamation Punjab, 2008, pp. 1-132.
[7] S. Afzal, I. Ahmad, M. Younas, M. D. Zahid, K. M. H. Atique, A. Ijaz and K. Ali, “Study of Water Quality of Hudiara Drain, India-Pakistan,” Environment International, Vol. 26, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 87-96. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(00)00086-6
[8] A. M. Kizer and H. Zhang, “Understanding Your Irrigation Water Test Report,” Oklahoma State University, Oklahoma, 2001.
[9] K. R. Sharma, M. Agrawal and F. Marshall, “Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil and Vegetables in Suburban Areas of Varanasi, India,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 66 No. 2, 2007, pp. 258-266. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.11.007
[10] K. R. Sahu, S. Katiyar, J. Tiwari and C. G. Kisku, “Assessment of Drain Water Receiving Effluent from Tanneries and Its Impact on Soil and Plants with Particular Emphasis on Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals,” Journal of Environmental Biology, Vol. 28 No. 3, 2007, pp. 685-690.
[11] J. H. J. Ensink, W. van der Hoek and W. Simmons Robert, “Livelihoods from Wastewater: Water Reuse in Faisalabad, Pakistan,” IWA Publishing, London, 2008, pp. 387-400.
[12] S. Akhtar and N. Mohammad, “Impact of Water Quality on Aquatic Life in River Ravi, Pakistan,” Journal of Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2012, pp. 219-224.
[13] M. Tariq, M. Ali, and Z. Shah, “Characteristics of Industrial Effluents and Their Possible Impacts on Quality of Underground Water,” Soil & Environment, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2006, pp. 64-69.
[14] E. M. Ali, “Impact of Drain Water on Water Quality and Eutrophication Status of Lake Burullus, Egypt, a Southern Mediterranean Lagoon,” African Journal of Aquatic Science, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2011, pp. 267-277. doi:10.2989/16085914.2011.636897
[15] WWF, “Pakistan’s Waters at Risk: Water & Health Related Issues in Pakistan & Key Recommendations: A Special Report,” WWF, Lahore, 2007, pp. 1-25.
[16] SFWF, “TDS and pH,” Organization of Safe Drinking Water, Canada, 2002, pp. 1-6.
[17] M. Ibrahim and S. Salamon, “Chemical Composition of Faisalabad City Sewage Effluent: II Irrigation Quality,” Journal of Agriculture Research, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1992, pp. 391-340.
[18] A. M. Kahlown, M. Ashraf, M. Hussain, A. H. Salam and Z. A. Bhatti, “Impact Assessment of Sewerage and Industrial Effluents on Water Resources, Soil, Crops and Human Health in Faisalabad,” Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, Lahore, 2006, pp. 1-105.
[19] M. B. Pescod, “Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture-FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper,” Wastewater Characteristics and Effluent Quality Parameters, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1992.
[20] I. Thornton, D. Butler, P. Docx, M. Hession, C. Makropoulos, M. McMullen, M. Nieuwenhuijsen, A. Pitman, R. Rautiu, R. Sawyer, S. Smith and D. White, “Pollutants in Urban Wastewater and Sewage Sludge,” Final Report, European Union, London, 2001, pp. 1-244.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.