Desiccation versus Re-Flooding: Heavy Metals Mobilization—Part 1


From the restoration point of view, heavy metals distribution and seasonal variation were studied in the re-flooded marshes of the Mesopotamia, southern Iraq. As part of the ecological recovery assessment of these newly inundated marshes, it is important to investigate the extend impact of 13 years of desiccation after five years of inundation on the heavy metals mobilization from the marshland downstream into the Shatt Al-Arab River and examine whether these marshlands retain their role of acting as sink of metals. The result shows significant differences between the re-flooded marshes versus the reference marsh, which indicates that desiccation cased changes in environmental variables and divided the one homogeneous system of the Mesopotamia into separated systems. In addition, the special distribution of heavy metals show that Al-Hawizeh and Al-Hammar marshlands were efficient for metals reduction, especially for Ni, while the Central marshland has the major contribution as source to metals. As a conclusion, the recovery potential of three marshlands is strongly controlled by the hydrological status of the marshland and the degree of the desiccation impact. The environmental status of the semidried marshes, Al-Souda north and Um Al-Niaaj, as well as the completely Abu Zarag dried marsh are exhibiting a positive recovery degree than the other monitored marshes in the Mesopotamia in comparison to the reference marsh.

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S. Al-Maarofi, A. Alhello, N. Fawzi, A. Douabul and H. Al-Saad, "Desiccation versus Re-Flooding: Heavy Metals Mobilization—Part 1," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 8B, 2013, pp. 27-36. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.48A2004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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