Effects of ADH1C, ALDH2, and CYP2A6 Polymorphisms on Individual Risk of Tobacco-Related Lung Cancer in Male Japanese Smokers


Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several lung cancer susceptibility loci. We previously carried out a replication study in male Japanese smokers that focused on chromosome 5p15 (telomerase reverse transcriptase) and 3q28 (tumor protein p63) (Shimizu et al., Journal of Cancer Therapy, Vol. 2, No. 5, 2011, pp. 690-696). The current study was performed to confirm the association of traditional susceptibility loci [i.e., alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2)] in 1039 male Japanese smokers (573 lung cancer patients and 466 healthy control subjects) who were previously enrolled in a study to investigate the low odds ratio for lung cancer risk associated with functionally impaired and deletion polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). The minor allele frequency of rs671 in ALDH2 (0.304) was significantly higher in lung cancer cases than in controls (0.226), with an odds ratio of 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.12 - 1.80, p = 0.0033]. No significant association of rs698 in ADH1C with lung cancer risk was found in this population of male Japanese smokers. For light smokers categorized according to the 50th percentile Brinkman index value among the control subjects (620 daily cigarettes × years) and for the CYP2A6*1 wild-type non-carrier sub-population, significantly high odds ratios of 1.98 and 1.68 (95% CI of 1.28 - 3.06, p = 0.0022, and 1.07 - 2.66, p = 0.025), respectively, were observed for rs671 in ALDH2. The present results support the association of ALDH2 loci with lung cancers and suggest a specific effect of ALDH2 loci resulting in a higher risk of lung cancer in light smokers. CYP2A6 polymorphisms, including copy number polymorphisms, may lower the risk of heavy tobacco use-related lung cancer.

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Shimizu, M. , Ishii, Y. , Okubo, M. , Kunitoh, H. , Kamataki, T. and Yamazaki, H. (2013) Effects of ADH1C, ALDH2, and CYP2A6 Polymorphisms on Individual Risk of Tobacco-Related Lung Cancer in Male Japanese Smokers. Journal of Cancer Therapy, 4, 29-35. doi: 10.4236/jct.2013.48A005.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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