Past, Present and Future Climate of Antarctica


Anthropogenic warming of near-surface atmosphere in the last 50 years is dominant over the west Antarctic Peninsula. Ozone depletion has led to partly cooling of the stratosphere. The positive polarity of the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM) index and its enhancement over the past 50 years have intensified the westerlies over the Southern Ocean, and induced warming of Antarctic Peninsula. Dictated by local ocean-atmosphere processes and remote forcing, the Antarctic sea ice extent is increasing, contrary to climate model predictions for the 21st century, and this increase has strong regional and seasonal signatures. Models incorporating doubling of present day CO2 predict warming of the Antarctic sea ice zone, a reduction in sea ice cover, and warming of the Antarctic Plateau, accompanied by increased snowfall.

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A. Luis, "Past, Present and Future Climate of Antarctica," International Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 4 No. 6, 2013, pp. 959-977. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2013.46089.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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