Auto-Scale Factor Circuit Realisation for MIMO Hardware Simulator


A hardware simulator reproduces the behavior of the radio propagation channel, thus making it possible to test “on table” the mobile radio equipments. The simulator can be used for LTE and WLAN 802.11ac applications, in indoor and outdoor environments. In this paper, the input signals parameters and the relative power of the impulse responses are related to the relative error and SNR of the output signals. After analyzing the influence of these parameters on the output error and SNR, an algorithm based on an Auto-Scale Factor (ASF) is analyzed in details to improve the precision of the output signals of the hardware simulator digital block architecture. Moreover, the circuit needed for the validation of this algorithm has been introduced, verified and realized. It is shown that this solution increases the output SNR if the relative powers of the impulse responses are attenuated. The new architecture of the digital block is presented and implemented on a Xilinx Virtex-IV FPGA. The occupation on the FPGA and the accuracy of the architecture are analyzed.

Share and Cite:

B. Habib, G. Zaharia and G. Zein, "Auto-Scale Factor Circuit Realisation for MIMO Hardware Simulator," Circuits and Systems, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2013, pp. 369-385. doi: 10.4236/cs.2013.44050.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] A. A. Gaston and W. H. Chriss, “A Multipath Fading Simulator for Mobile Radio,” IEEE Transaction on Ve hicular Technology, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1973, pp. 241-244. doi:10.1109/T-VT.1973.23560
[2] R. Fitting, “Wideband Troposcatter Radio Channel Simu lator,” IEEE Transaction Communication Technology, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1975, pp. 565-570. doi:10.1109/TCOM.1967.1089626
[3] J. R. Ball, “A Real-Time Fading Simulator for Mobile Radio,” Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vol. 52, No. 10, 1982, pp. 475-478.
[4] M. Lecours and F. Marceau, “Design and Implementation of Channel Simulator for Wideband Mobile Radio Trans mission,” IEEE VTC, San Francisco, 1-3 May 1989, pp. 652-655.
[5] R. A. Comroe and F. Marceau, “All-Digital Fading Simu lator,” Electron Configuration, Vol. 32, 1978, pp. 136-139.
[6] R. A. Goubran, H. M. Hafez and A. U. Sheikh, “Real Time Programmable Land Mobile Channel Simulator,” IEEE VTC, Vol. 36, 1986, pp. 215-218.
[7] J. F. An, A. M. Turkmani and J. D. Parson, “Implementation of a DSP-Based Frequency Non-Selective Fading Simulator,” Fifth International Conference on Radio Receivers and Associated Systems, Cambridge, 23-27 July 1990, pp. 20-24.
[8] P. J. Cullen, P. C. Fannin and A. Garvey, “Real-Time Simulation of Randomly Time-Variant Linear Systems: The Mobile Radio Channel,” IEEE Transaction on In strumentation and Measurement, Vol. 43, No. 4, 1994, pp. 583-591. doi:10.1109/19.310172
[9] A. K. Salkintzis, “Implementation of a Digital Wide-Band Mobile Channel Simulator,” IEEE Transaction on Broad casting, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1999, pp. 122-128. doi:10.1109/11.754991
[10] J. R. Papenfuss and M. A. Wickert, “Implementation of a Real-Time, Frequency Selective, RF Channel Simulator Using a Hybrid DSP-FPGA Architecture,” IEEE Radio Wireless Conference, Denver, 10-13 September 2000, pp. 135-138.
[11] S. Fischer, R. Seeger and K. D. Kammeyer, “Implementation of a Real-Time Satellite Channel Simulator for Laboratory and Teaching Purposes,” The Third European DSP Education & Research Conference, Paris, 20-21 September 2000.
[12] C. Komninakis, “A Fast and Accurate Rayleigh Fading Simulator,” IEEE GLOBECOM, Chicago, 1-5 December 2003, pp. 3306-3310.
[13] M. Khars and C. Zimmer, “Digital Signal Processing in a Real Time Propagation Simulator,” IEEE Transaction on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 55, No. 1, 2006, pp. 197-205. doi:10.1109/TIM.2005.861491
[14] S. Kandeepan and A. D. Jayalath, “Narrow-Band Channel Simulator Based on Statistical Models Implemented on Texas Instruments C6713 DSP and National Instruments PCIE-6259 Hardware,” 10th IEEE Singapore Interna tional Conference on Communications Systems, Singa pore City, 30 October-2 November 2006, pp. 846-851.
[15] P. Murphy, F. Lou, A. Sabharwal and P. Frantz, “An FPGA Based Rapid Prototyping Platform for MIMO Systems,” Conference Record of the Thirty-Seventh Asi lomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, Vol. 1, 2003, pp. 900-904.
[16] S. Buscemi, W. Kritikos and R. Sass, “A Range and Scaling Study of an FPGA-Based Digital Wireless Channel Emulator,” IEEE 21st Annual International Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines, Seattle, 28-30 April 2013.
[17] S. Picol, G. Zaharia, D. Houzet and G. El Zein, “Hardware Simulator for MIMO Radio Channels: Design and Features of the Digital Block,” IEEE VTC Fall, Calgary, 21-24 September 2008, pp. 1-5.
[18] F. Carames, M. Gonzalez-Lopez and L. Castedo, “FPGA Based Vehicular Channel Emulator for Evaluation of IEEE 802.11p Transceivers,” Intelligent Transport Sys tems Telecommunications (ITST), Lille, 20-22 October 2009, pp. 592-597.
[19] K. C. Borries, G. Judd, D. D. Stancil and P. Steenkiste, “FPGA-Based Channel Simulator for a Wireless Network Emulator,” IEEE 69th Vehicular Technology Conference, Barcelona, 26-29 April 2009, pp. 1-5.
[20] H. Eslami, S. V. Tran and A. M. Eltawil, “Design and Implementation of a Scalable Channel Emulator for Wideband MIMO Systems,” IEEE Transaction on Ve hicular Technology, Vol. 58, No. 9, 2009, pp. 4698-4708. doi:10.1109/TVT.2009.2027439
[21] S. Fouladi Fard, A. Alimohammad, B. Cockburn and C. Schlegel, “A Single FPGA Filter-Based Multipath Fading Emulator,” IEEE GLOBECOM, Honolulu, 30 Novem ber-4 December 2009, pp. 1-5.
[22] S. Buscemi and R. Sass, “Design of a Scalable Digital Wireless Channel Emulator for Networking Radios,” Military Communications Conference (MILCOM), Char leston, 2011.
[23] M. I. Akram and A. U. Sheikh, “Design and Implementa tion of Real Time Wideband Channel Simulator,” EURA SIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Network ing, Vol. 2012, 2012, p. 359. doi:10.1186/1687-1499-2012-359
[24] “Wireless Channel Emulator,” Spirent Communications, 2006.
[25] “Baseband Fading Simulator ABFS, Reduced Costs through Baseband Simulation,” Rohde & Schwarz, 1999.
[26] S. Picol, G. Zaharia, D. Houzet and G. El Zein, “Design of the Digital Block of a Hardware Simulator for MIMO Radio Channels,” IEEE 17th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Helsinki, 11-14 September 2006, pp. 1-5.
[27] V. Erceg, L. Shumacher, P. Kyritsi, et al., “TGn Channel Models,” IEEE 802.11 03/940r4, 10 May 2004.
[28] Agilent Technologies, “Advanced Design System—LTE Channel Model—R4-070872 3GPP TR 36.803 v0.3.0,” 2008.
[29] H. Farhat, R. Cosquer, G. Grunfelder, L. Le Coq and G. El Zein, “A Dual Band MIMO Channel Sounder at 2.2 and 3.5 GHz,” Instrumentation and Measurement Tech nology Conference Proceedings, Victoria, 12-15 May 2008, pp. 1980-1985.
[30] P. Almers, E. Bonek, et al., “Survey of Channel and Radio Propagation Models for Wireless MIMO Systems,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol. 2007, 2007, Article ID: 19070.
[31] J. Salz and J. H. Winters, “Effect of Fading Correlation on Adaptive Arrays in Digital Mobile Radio,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 43, No. 4, 1994, pp. 1049-1057.
[32] L. Schumacher, K. I. Pedersen and P. E. Mogensen, “From Antenna Spacings to Theoretical Capacities— Guidelines for Simulating MIMO Systems,” The 13th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Vol. 2, 2002, pp. 587-592.
[33] “Xilinx: FPGA, CPLD and EPP Solutions,” 2013.
[34] B. Habib, G. Zaharia and G. El Zein, “MIMO Hardware Simulator: Digital Block Design for 802.11ac Applica tions with TGn Channel Model Test,” 2012 IEEE 75th Vehicular Technology Conference, Yokohama, 6-9 May 2012, pp. 1-5.
[35] B. Habib, G. Zaharia and G. El Zein, “Digital Block De sign of MIMO Hardware Simulator for LTE Applica tions,” 2012 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Ottawa, 10-15 June 2012, pp. 4489-4493.
[36] D. Umansky and M. Patzold, “Design of Measurement Based Stochastic Wideband MIMO Channel Simulators,” IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Honolulu, 30 November-4 December 2009, pp. 1-7.
[37] M. Al Mahdi Eshtawie and M. Bin Othma, “An Algo rithm Proposed for FIR Filter Coefficients Representa tion,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2007.
[38] B. Habib, G. Zaharia and G. El Zein, “MIMO Hardware Simulator: New Digital Block Design in Frequency Do main for Streaming Signals,” Journal of Wireless Net working and Communications, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2012, pp. 55-65. doi:10.5923/j.jwnc.20120204.05
[39] W. C. Jakes, “Microwave Mobile Communications,” Wiley & Sons, New York, 1975.
[40] J. P. Kermoal, L. Schumacher, K. I. Pedersen, P. E. Mo gensen and F. Frederiksen, “A Stochastic MIMO Radio Channel Model with Experimental Validation,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 20, No. 6, 2002, pp. 1211-1226. doi:10.1109/JSAC.2002.801223
[41] Q. H. Spencer, et al., “Modeling the Statistical Time and Angle of Arrival Characteristics of an Indoor Environ ment,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communica tions, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2000, pp. 347-360. doi:10.1109/49.840194
[42] C.-C. Chong, D. I. Laurenson and S. McLaughlin, “Sta tistical Characterization of the 5.2 GHz Wideband Direc tional Indoor Propagation Channels with Clustering and Correlation Properties,” IEEE 56th Vehicular Technol ogy Conference, Vol. 1, September 2002, pp. 629-633.
[43] “ModelSim-Advanced Simulation and Debugging,” 2011.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.