Effects of Seed Hydropriming on Germination and Seedling Vigor during Emergence of Rice under Different Soil Moisture Conditions


Seed priming is a physiological seed enhancement method. Hydro- or osmotic priming can advance germination under adequate moisture conditions. During direct seeding on well-drained paddy and upland fields, rice seeds occasionally encounter low soil moisture conditions. Under these conditions, rice seeds need to undergo rapid germination and secure emergence through improved water absorption capacity and seed bioactive. This study aims to clarify the effects of seed hydropriming on germination and seedling vigor in rice under different soil moisture conditions. The study employed three hydration conditions such as priming, soaking, and control. The seeds to be primed and soaked were submerged in tap water at 30℃ for 12 h. For priming, the seeds were subsequently dried to attain their initial seed weight, but the seeds for soaking were not dried before sowing, and the control seeds were untreated. In addition, different soil moisture conditions, such as 3%, 6%, 8%, 11%, 15%, and 20%, were set. Therefore, emergence time shortened with seed priming at 3%-11% soil moisture contents. In particular, at 8% soil moisture content, priming and soaking decreased emergence time by 26.8 h and 21.7 h, respectively compared with that of the control. At 8%-15% soil moisture contents, shoot elongation rate obtained with the priming seeds increased >1.2 times compared with that obtained with the control and soaking seeds. At >8% soil moisture content, shoot dry weight obtained with the priming seeds increased >1.3 times compared with that obtained with the soaking seeds. Furthermore, at declining soil moisture conditions, the increase in root dry weight is promoted by seed priming compared with that in the control seeds. These results suggest that increased root growth affects plant water absorption under low soil moisture conditions due to priming. This study demonstrates that seed priming facilitates rapid emergence and seedling vigor, unless extremely dry or flooded soil moisture conditions are present at seeding.

Share and Cite:

K. Matsushima and J. Sakagami, "Effects of Seed Hydropriming on Germination and Seedling Vigor during Emergence of Rice under Different Soil Moisture Conditions," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 8, 2013, pp. 1584-1593. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.48191.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] A. G. Taylor, P. S. Allen, M. A. Bonnett, K. J. Bradford, J. S. Burris and M. K. Misra, “Seed Enhancements,” Seed Science Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1998, pp. 245-256. doi:10.1017/S0960258500004141
[2] W. Heydecker, “Germination of an Idea: The Priming of Seeds,” School of Agriculture Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, 1973, pp. 50-67.
[3] S. H. Gurusinghe, Z. Y. Cheng and K. J. Bradford, “Cell Cycle Activity during Seed Priming Is Not Essential for Germination Advancement in Tomato,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 50, No. 330, 1990, pp. 101-106. doi:10.1093/jxb/50.330.101
[4] K. Gallardo, C. Job, S. P. C. Groot, M. Puype, H. Demol, J. Vandekerckhove and D. Job, “Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis Seed Germination and Priming,” Plant physiology, Vol. 126, No. 2, 2001, pp. 835-848. doi:10.1104/pp.126.2.835
[5] J. K. Bradford, “Manipulation of Seed Water Relations via Osmotic Priming to Improve Germination under Stress Conditions,” Hortscience, Vol. 21, 1986, pp. 1105-1112.
[6] C. A. Parera and D. J. Cantliffe, “Presowing Seed Priming,” Horticultural Reviews, Vol. 16, 1994, pp. 109-142.
[7] R. B. Austin, P. C. Longden and J. Hutchinson, “Some Effects of ‘Hardening’ Carrot Seed,” Annual Botany, Vol. 33, 1969, pp. 883-895.
[8] L. Enu-Kwesi, M. Nwalozie and D. I. Anyanwu, “Effect of Pre-Sowing ‘Hydration-Dehydration’ on Germination, Vegetative Growth and Fruit Yield of Abelmoschus esculentus Growth under Two Soil Moisture Regimes,” Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), Vol. 63, No. 3, 1986, pp. 181-184.
[9] M. A. Bennett and L. Waters Jr., “Germination and Emergence of High-Sugar Sweet Corn in Improved by Presowing Hydration of Seed,” Hortscience, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1987, pp. 236-238.
[10] R. Dolly and S. Nakamura, “The Effect of Hydration-Dehydration Pretreatments on Eggplant and Radish Seed Viability and Vigor,” Seed Science and Technology, Vol. 16, 1988, pp. 123-130.
[11] H. Ando and T. Kobata, “Effect of Seed Hardening, Wetting and Redrying before Sowing, on Germination and Seedling Emergence of a Japanese Wheat Variety Norin 61 in Desiccated Soil,” Plant Production Science, Vol. 4, 2001, pp. 50-55. doi:10.1626/pps.4.50
[12] M. Yamamoto, “Effects of Temporary Water Stress in Germinating Seeds on Germination in Weed Seeds,” Bulletin of Yamagata University, Natural Science, Vol. 11, 1986, pp. 317-326 (in Japanese).
[13] R. H. Ellis and P. D. Butcher, “The Effects of Priming and ‘Natural’ Differences in Quality amongst Onion Seed Lots on the Response of the Rate of Germination to Temperature and the Identification of the Characteristics under Genotypic Control,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 39, No. 204, 1988, pp. 935-950. doi:10.1093/jxb/39.7.935
[14] G. H. Zheng, W. W. Ronald, S. E. Alfred and G. V. Lawrence, “Enhancement of Canola Seed Germination and Seedling Emergence at Low Temperature by Priming,” Crop Science, Vol. 34, No. 6, 1994, pp. 1589-1593. doi:10.2135/cropsci1994.0011183X003400060031x
[15] T. A. Evans and W. G. Pill, “Emergence and Seedling Growth from Osmotically Primed or Pregerminated Seeds of Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.),” Journal of Horticulutural Science, Vol. 64, No. 3, 1989, pp. 275-282.
[16] A. B. Ayers and H. E. Hayward, “A Method for Measuring the Effects of Soil Salinity on Seed Germination with Observations on Several Crop Plants,” Proceeding of Soil Science Society of American, USA, Vol. 13, 1948, pp. 224-226.
[17] I. Afzal, A. M. A. Basra, N. Ahmad and T. E. Lodhi, “Counteraction of Salinity Stress on Wheat Plants by PreSowing Seed Treatments,” Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 44, No. 1, 2007, pp. 50-58.
[18] M. Ashraf and M. R. Foolad, “Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment: A Shotgun Approach to Improve Germination, Plant Growth, and Crop Yield under Saline and Non-Saline Conditions,” Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 88, 2005, pp. 223-271. doi:10.1016/S0065-2113(05)88006-X
[19] N. Yamada, H. Suge and H. Nakamura, “Chemical Control of Plant Growth and Development (1) Germination of Rice Seed as Affected by Sprouting and Gibberellin Application,” Japanese Journal of Crop Science, Vol. 31, 1962, pp. 253-257. doi:10.1626/jcs.31.253
[20] M. Farooq, S. M. A. Basra, I. Afzal and A. Khaliq, “Optimization of Hydropriming Techniques for Rice Seed Invigoration,” Seed Science & Technology, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2006, pp. 507-512.
[21] S. S. Lee and J. H. Kim, “Morphological Change, Sugar Content and α-Amylase Activity of Rice Seeds under Various Priming Conditions,” Korean Journal of Crop Science, Vol. 44, No. 2, 1999, pp. 138-142.
[22] M. Farooq, S. M. A. Basra, M. Khalid, R. Tabassum and T. Mahmood, “Nutrient Homeostasis, Metabolism of Reserves, and Seedling Vigor as Affected by Seed Priming in Coarse Rice,” Canadian Journal of Botany, Vol. 84, No. 8, 2006, pp. 1196-1202. doi:10.1139/b06-088
[23] M. Farooq, S. M. A. Basra, R. Tabassum and I. Afzal, “Enhanceing the Performance of Direct Seeded Fine Rice by Seed Priming,” Plant Production Science, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2006, pp. 446-456. doi:10.1626/pps.9.446
[24] H. Shiratsuchi, H. Kitagawa, K. Okada, K. Nakanishi, M. Suzuki, A. Ogura, M. Matsuzaki and S. Yasumoto, “Development of Rice ‘Seed-Mats’ Consisting of Hardened Seeds with a Cover of Soil for the Rice Transplanter,” Plant Production Science, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2008, pp. 108-115. doi:10.1626/pps.11.108
[25] M. Farooq, S. M. A. Basra, A. Aahid and N. Ahmad, “Changes in Nutrient-Homeostasis and Reserves Metabolism during Rice Seed Priming: Consequences for Seedling Emergence and Growth,” Agricultural Science in China, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2010, pp. 191-198. doi:10.1016/S1671-2927(09)60083-3
[26] M. Farooq, S. M. A. Basra, H. A. Karim and I. Afzal, “Optimization of Seed Hardening Techniques for Rice Seed Invigoration,” Emirates Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 16, 2004, pp. 48-57.
[27] S. M. A. Basra, M. Farooq, R. Tabassum and N. Ahmad, “Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Pre-Sowing Seed Treatments in Fine Rice (Oryza sativa L.),” Seed Science & Technology, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2005, pp. 623-628.
[28] H. Ando and T. Kobata, “Does Wetting and Redrying the Seed before Sowing Improve Rice Germination and Emergence under Low Soil Moisture Condition?” Plant Production Science, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2000, pp. 161-163. doi:10.1626/pps.3.161
[29] S. S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. B. Hong, S. H. Yun and E. H. Park, “Priming Effect of Rice Seeds on Seedling Establishment under Adverse Soil Condition,” Korean Journal of Crop Science, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1998, pp. 194-198.
[30] H. Shiratsuchi, S. Morita and J. Takanashi, “Differences in the Rate of Seedling Emergence among Rice Cultivars under Low Soil-Moisture Conditions,” Plant Production Science, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2001, pp. 94-102. doi:10.1626/pps.4.94
[31] K. Kawaguchi, “Soil Water and Soil Air,” In: K. Kawaguchi, K. Kumada, S. Aomine, S. Kosaka, H. Okajima, S. Sasaki, Y. Takai, I. Yamane and S. Hunahiki, Eds., Soil Science, Asakurasyotenn Press, Tokyo, 1974, pp. 82-97 (in Japanese).
[32] H. Ando and T. Kobata, “Effect of Seed Hardening on the Seedling Emergence and α-Amylase Activity in the Grains of Wheat and Rice Sown in Dry Soil,” Japanese Journal of Crop Science, Vol. 71, No. 2, 2002, pp. 220-225 (in Japanese). doi:10.1626/jcs.71.220
[33] S. S. Lee and J. H. Kim, “Total Sugars, α-Amylase Activity, and Germination after Priming of Normal and Aged Rice Seeds,” Korean Journal of Crop Science, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2000, pp. 108-111.
[34] D. L. Taylor, “Influence of Oxygen Tension on Respiration, Fermentation, and Growth in Wheat and Rice,” American Journal of Botany, Vol. 29, No. 9, 1942, pp. 721-738. doi:10.2307/2437726
[35] A. Alpi and H. Beevers, “Effect of O2 Concentration on Rice Seedlings,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 71, No. 1, 1983, pp. 30-34. doi:10.1104/pp.71.1.30
[36] M. Yamauchi, A. M. Aguilar, D. A. Vaughan and D. V. Seshu, “Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Germplasm Suitable for Direct Sowing under Flooded Soil Surface,” Euphytica, Vol. 67, No. 3, 1993, pp. 177-184. doi:10.1007/BF00040619
[37] M. Yamauchi and T. Winn, “Rice Seed Vigor and Seedling Establishment in Anaerobic Soil,” Crop Science, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1996, pp. 680-686. doi:10.2135/cropsci1996.0011183X003600030027x
[38] S. E. El-Hendawy, C. Sone, O. Ito and J. I. Sakagami, “Evaluation of Germination Ability in Rice Seeds under Anaerobic Conditions by Cluster Analysis,” Research Journal of Seed Science, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2011, pp. 82-93. doi:10.3923/rjss.2011.82.93
[39] P. Perata, J. P-Romero, T. Akazawa and J. Yamaguchi, “Effect of Anoxia on Starch Breakdown in Rice and Wheat Seeds,” Planta, Vol. 188, No. 4, 1992, pp. 611-618. doi:10.1007/BF00197056
[40] A. M. Ismail, E. S. Ella, G. V. Vergara and D. J. Mackill, “Mechanisms Associated with Tolerance to Flooding during Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Rice (Oryza sativa L.),” Annals of Botany, Vol. 103, No. 2, 2009, pp. 197-209. doi:10.1093/aob/mcn211
[41] T. Sato and S. Maruyama, “Seedling Emergence and Establishment under Drained Conditions in Rice Direct-Sown into Puddled and Leveled Soil—Effect of Calcium Peroxide Seed Coating and Sowing Depth,” Plant Production Science, Vol. 5, 2002, pp. 71-76. doi:10.1626/pps.5.71
[42] T. Sato and S. Maruyama, “Seedling Growth and Dry-Matter Production under Drained Conditions in Rice Direct-Sown into Puddled and Leveled Soil,” Plant Production Science, Vol. 8, 2005, pp. 209-215. doi:10.1626/pps.8.209
[43] K. Hoshikawa, “The Growing Rice Plant—An Anatomical Monograph,” Nobunkyo Press, Tokyo, 1989, pp. 30-31, 59-67.
[44] N. Takahashi, “Adaptive Importance of Mesocotyl and Coleoptile Growth in Rice under Different Moisture Regime,” Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1978, pp. 511-517. doi:10.1071/PP9780511
[45] N. Takahashi, “Physiology of Seed Germination,” In: T. Matsuo, K. Kumazawa, R. Ishii and H. Hirata, Eds., Science of Rice Plant Vol. 2 Physiology. I. Physiology of Development, Nobunkyo Press, Tokyo, 1995, pp. 35-65.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.