Can Hydropower Drive Green Economy for Nepal: A Review

DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.47084   PDF   HTML     4,179 Downloads   6,155 Views   Citations


Economy is of importance for everyone but the growing environmental destruction and disparity between the rich and poor demands adoption of cleaner and better path so as to secure the future resources and achieve sustainable development with better social inclusion. On this regard, the term green economy came into light. The Asian Center for Environment Management and Sustainable Development (AEMS) then explored the green economy concept in Nepal through a regional workshop on May 2012 with participants from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Canada, UK and Nepal. Consequently, the hydropower sector of Nepal was recognized as one of the most feasible and potential sector for green economy. Therefore, various case studies of hydropower projects, interaction programs and interviews with relevant personnel were carried out for this study to analyze the scope of hydropower in achieving the three important attributes of green economy, namelyresource efficiency, low carbon and social inclusion. Nepal is rich in water resources; it is therefore possible to use our abundant water resource in an efficient manner. Likewise, the end product of hydropower is clean energy though carbon emission is involved during the construction. It shows the potential to replace considerable amount of carbon emission from biomass based energy resources. Similarly, hydropower project exhibits positive implication on the local society besides making electricity available to the whole nation. The locals also get floating shares and royalty benefits to develop the project affected area. However, the affected areas now have minimal share in royalty. Besides, this study also addresses the issues of policy implication and challenges. All the relevant issues of hydropower as studied reveal that there are required provisions at place in Nepal for hydropower sector to fit perfectly in green economy concept, if only, the prevalent issues are handled efficiently and effectively by the relevant sectors.

Share and Cite:

A. Mathema, S. Guragain, N. Sherpa and B. Adhikari, "Can Hydropower Drive Green Economy for Nepal: A Review," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 732-740. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.47084.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ecological Society of America (ESA), “Ecological Impacts of Economic Activities,” 2012.
[2] UNEP, UNCTAD and UN-OHRLLS, “Green Economy— Why a Green Economy Matters for the Least Developed Countries,” UNEP, United Nations UNCTAD, UNOHRLLS, 2011.
[3] M. S. Lele, “Sustainable Development: A Critical Review,” World Development, Vol. 19, No. 6, 1991, pp. 607-621. doi:10.1016/0305-750X(91)90197-P
[4] AEMS, “Environmental Mainstreaming for a Green Economy,” AEMS/SchEMS/IIED, Kathmandu, 2012.
[5] J. A. Ocampo, “The Transition to a Green Economy: Benefits, Challenges and Risks from a Sustainable Development Perspective,” UNEP, UN-UNCTAD, undated.
[6] B.-D. Clayton, et al., “Safeguarding the Future, Securing Shangri-la,” IIED, AEMS, 2012.
[7] H. M. Shrestha, “Cadastre of Potential Water Power Resources of Less Studied High Mountainous Regions, with Speical Reference to Nepal,” Moscow Power Institute, USSR, Moscow, 1966.
[8] MoWR, “The Hydropower Development Policy, 1992,” MInistry of Water Resources (Now Ministry of Energy), Government of Nepal, Nepal, 1992.
[9] B. M. Sherchan, “Hydropower Development in Nepal— The Developers’ Dilemma,” Nepali Perspectives, Kathmandu, 2008.
[10] S. Pokharel, “Hydropower for Energy in Nepal,” Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2001, pp. 4-9. doi:10.1659/0276-4741(2001)021[0004:HFEIN]2.0.CO;2
[11] R. S. Shrestha, “An overview of Hydropower Policy,” Ratna Sansar Shrestha, FCA [blog], Kathmandu, 2010.
[12] M. R. Ghimire, “Present Hydropower Development Policy in Nepal,” Regulating Network [Blog], Kathmandu, 2011.
[13] D. O. Hall, et al., “Biomass Energy Supply and Prospects,” In: H. K. Johansson, A. K. Reddy and R. H. Williams, Eds., Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuel and Electricity, Island Press, Washington DC, 1993.
[14] S. C. Bhattacharya and P. Abdul-Salam, “Low Greenhouse Gas Biomass Options for Cooking in the Developing Countries,” Biomass and Energy, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2002, pp. 305-317. doi:10.1016/S0961-9534(02)00008-9
[15] S. Pokharel, “Kyoto Protocol and Nepal’s Energy Sector,” Energy Policy, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2007, pp. 2514-2525. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2006.09.015
[16] ICIMOD/ADB, “Environment Assessment of Nepal: Emerging Issues and Challenges,” Asian Development Bank/International Center for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, 2006.
[17] WECS, “Energy Synopsis Report,” Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, Kathmandu, 2006.
[18] S. R. Shakya, “Application of Renewable Energy Technology for Greenhouse Gas Emission in Nepalese Context: A Case Study,” The Nepalese Journal of Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2005, pp. 92-101.
[19] CBS, “Preliminary Result of National Population Census,” Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu, 2012.
[20] IPCC, “Revised Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories,” Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva, 1996.
[21] C. Wang, “A Guide for Local Benefit Sharing in Hydropower Projects,” The World Bank, Washington DC, 2012.
[22] E. G. R. E. Dominique, “Compendium on Relevant Practices—2nd Stage. Dams and Development Project,” United Nations Environment Programme, 2007.
[23] MoWR, “The Hydropower Development Policy, 2001,” Ministry of Water Resources (Now Ministry of Energy), Government of Nepal, 2001.
[24] Singh, D. B. “Balancing Energy Food Natural Resources and Environment in Nepal (An Assessment of 6720 MW Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project),” 2010.
[25] DoED, Department of Electricty Development, “Royalty Management,” 2011.
[26] Department of Electricity Development “Royalty Management and Distribution,” Department of Electricity Development (DoED), Ministry of Energy, Government of Nepal, 2011.
[27] L. Joshi, “A Community-Based PES Scheme for Forest Preservation and Sediment Control in Kulekhani, Nepal (Case Study 9),” In: D Ottaviani and N.-H. Scialabba, Eds., Payment for Ecosystem Services and Food Policy, ICIMOD, Rome, 2011, pp. 114-123.
[28] K. Chalise, “Business and Economy: Hydropower Companies Must Float Shares for Locals,” Kathmandu, Nepal, 2010.
[29] ADB, “Nepal: Preparation of National Resettlement Policy,” Asian Development Bank, Kathmandu, 2006.
[30] D. B. Singh, “Nepal Case Study on Environmental Impact Assessment of Middle-Marsyangdi Hydro Electric Project,” Department of Electricity Development, Kathmandu, 2003.
[31] FNCCI, “Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industry. Hydro Power Projects 2009/2010, 2011 (online).

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.