Lack of evidence for sufficiently isolated populations of Glossina morsitans submorsitans on the Adamawa Plateau of Cameroon following geometric morphometric analysis

DOI: 10.4236/ae.2013.11001   PDF   HTML     3,145 Downloads   8,074 Views   Citations


Trypanosomosis remains the number one killer of livestock in spite of efforts made to eradicate tsetse flies in the Adamawa plateau of Cameroon. Acetone-baited Laveissière type biconical traps were pitched at 100 meter intervals in strategic geo-referenced positions in various ecological niches of the landscape for 5 consecutive days in selected villages in Mayo Rey, Mbere, Vina and Faro et Deo divisions. All 493 tsetse flies captured in sites other than Mboula wereG. morsitans submositans.Measurement of different morphometric characters on the wings of each individual fly was undertaken using the Du Jardin package. The data was processed and analysed by “Permutaciones,
Analisis Discriminante (PAD)” and “Bootstraps, Analisis en Componentes principales”. The three major sampling sites on the plateau yielded similar results as demonstrated by the neighbour joining tree of Mahalanobis distances but tests using PAD showed the differences between group means to be significant (P < 0.05) even when the same number of flies was used. Mixing of tsetse populations from the northern lowlands and those on the plateau and Koutine plain could not be ruled out. These preliminary findings suggest that the flies are not from isolated populations and should be considered as populations frequently exchanging migrants. However, molecular genetics techniques are necessary in addition to morphometric analysis to reach more definitive conclusions.

Share and Cite:

Daniel Achukwi, M. , Gillingwater, J. , Michel Njan Nloga, A. and Simo, G. (2013) Lack of evidence for sufficiently isolated populations of Glossina morsitans submorsitans on the Adamawa Plateau of Cameroon following geometric morphometric analysis. Advances in Entomology, 1, 1-7. doi: 10.4236/ae.2013.11001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ogunsanmi, A.O., Ikede, B.O. and Akpavie, S.O. (2000) Effects of management, season, vegetation zone and breed on the prevalence of bovine trypanosomiasis in south western Nigeria. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 55, 69-73.
[2] Bossche, P.V.D. and Staak, C. (1997) The importance of cattle as a food source for Glossina morsitans morsitans in Katete District, Eastern Province, Zambia. Acta Tropica, 65, 105-109. doi:10.1016/S0001-706X(97)00658-X
[3] Achukwi, M.D. and Musongong, G.A. (2009) Trypanosomosis in the Dayo/Namchi (Bos taurus) and zebu White Fulani (Bos indicus) cattle in Faro Division, North Cameroon. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 15, 807-814.
[4] Mamoudou, A., Zoli, A. and Tchoua, P. (2009) Parasitological prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in the Faro and Deo division of the Adamawa plateau, Cameroon. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 3, 1192-1197.
[5] Tanenbe, C., Gambo, H., Musongong, A.G., Boris, O. and Achukwi, M.D. (2010) Prévalence de la trypanosomose bovine dans les départements du Faro et Déo, et de la Vina au Cameroun: Bilan de vingt années de lutte contre les glossines. Revue d’élevage et de médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 63, 53-55.
[6] Cuisance, D. (1991) Lutte contre les Glossines dans l ’Adamaoua (Cameroun) Bilan de Situation et Recommendations. Institut d’Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Département du CIRAD, Maison Alfort, 1-53.
[7] Cuisance, D. and Boutrais, J. (1995) Evaluation de la Situation et de la Stratégie de Lutte contre les Glossines et les Trypanosomoses dans l ’Adamaoua (Cameroun). Rapport de Mission CIRADEMVT, Maison Alfort, 1-63.
[8] Awa, D. and Achukwi, M.D. (2010) Livestock pathology in the Central African region: Some epidemiological considerations and control strategies. Animal Health Research Review, 15, 1-10.
[9] Kabayo, J.P. (2002) Aiming to eliminate tsetse from Africa. Trends Parasitology, 18, 473-475. doi:10.1016/S1471-4922(02)02371-1
[10] Gooding, R.H. (1981) Genetic polymorphism in three species of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Upper Volta. Acta Tropica, 38, 149-161
[11] Gooding, R.H. (1989) Genetics of two populations of Glossina morsitans centralis (Diptera: Glossinidae) from Zambia. Acta Tropica, 46, 17-22. doi:10.1016/0001-706X(89)90012-0
[12] Gooding, R.H., Mbise, S., Macha, P. and Rolseth, B.M. (1993) Genetic variation in a Tanzanian population of Glossina swynnertoni (Diptera: Glossinidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 30, 489-492.
[13] Krafsur, E.S. (2002) Population structure of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes estimated by allozyme, microsatellite and mitochondrial gene diversities. Insect Molecular Biology, 11, 37-45. doi:10.1046/j.0962-1075.2001.00307.x
[14] Solano, P., Duvallet, G., Dumas, V., Cuisance, D. and Cuny, G. (1997) Microsatellite markers for genetic population studies in Glossina palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae). Acta Tropica, 65, 175-180. doi:10.1016/S0001-706X(97)00663-3
[15] Ouma, J.O., Cummings, M.A., Jones, K.C. and Krafsur, E.S. (2003) Characterization of microsatellite markers in the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae). Molecular Ecology Notes, 3, 450-453. doi:10.1046/j.1471-8286.2003.00480.x
[16] Krafsur, E.S. and Endsley, M.A. (2006) Shared microsatellite loci in Glossina morsitans sensulato (Diptera: Glossinidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 43, 640-642. doi:10.1603/0022-2585(2006)43[640:SMLIGM]2.0.CO;2
[17] Krafsur, E.S. and Griffiths, N. (1997) Genetic variation at structural loci in the Glossina morsitans species group. Biochemical Genetic, 35, 1-11. doi:10.1023/A:1022252311715
[18] Krafsur, E.S. and Wohlford, D.L. (1999) Breeding structure of Glossina pallidipes populations evaluated by mitochondrial variation. Journal of Heredity, 90, 635-642. doi:10.1093/jhered/90.6.635
[19] Marquez, J.G., Vreysen, M.J., Robinson, A.S., Bado, S., and Krafsur, E.S. (2004) Mitochondrial diversity analysis of Glossina palpalis gambiensis from Mali and Senegal. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 18, 288-295. doi:10.1111/j.0269-283X.2004.00508.x
[20] Krafsur, E.S. (2003) Tsetse fly population genetics: An indirect approach to dispersal. Trendsin Parasitology, 19, 162-166. doi:10.1016/S1471-4922(03)00034-5
[21] Krafsur, E.S. (2009) Tsetse flies: Genetics, evolution, and role as vectors. Infections, Genetic and Evolution, 9, 124-141. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.09.010
[22] Gooding, R.H. and Krafsur, E.S. (2005) Tsetse genetics: Contributions to biology, systematics, and control of tsetse flies. Annual Review of Entomology, 50, 101-123. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.50.071803.130443
[23] Jeyaprakash, A. and Hoy, M.A. (2009) First divergence time of spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks (subphylum Chelicerata) inferred from mitochondrial phylogeny. Exprimental Applied Acarology. 47, 1-18. doi:10.1007/s10493-008-9203-5
[24] Solano, P., De La Rocque, S., Cuisance, D., Geoffroy, B., De Meeus, T., Cuny, G. and Duvallet, G. (1999) Intraspecific variability in natural populations of Glossina palpalis gambiensis from West Africa, revealed by genetic and morphometric analyses. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 13, 401-407. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2915.1999.00189.x
[25] Vignon, M. and Sasal, P. (2010) The use of geometric morphometrics in understanding shape variability of sclerotized haptoral structures of monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) with insights into biogeographic variability. Parasitology International, 59, 183-191. doi:10.1016/j.parint.2010.01.006
[26] Bouyer, J., Ravel, S., Dujardin, J.P., De Meeüs, T., Vial, L., Thévenon, S., Guerrini, L., Sidibé, I. and Solano, P. (2007) Population structuring of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) according to landscape fragmentation in the Mouhoun river, Burkina Faso. Journal of Medical Entomology, 44, 788-795. doi:10.1603/0022-2585(2007)44[788:PSOGPG]2.0.CO;2
[27] Camara, M., Carorian, H.O, Ravel, S, Dujardin, J.P., Hervouet, J.P., De Meeus, T., Kagbadouno, M.S., Bouyer, J. and Solano, P. (2006) Genetic and morphometric evidence for population isolation of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) on the Loos Islands, Guinea. Journal of MedicalEntomology, 43, 853-860. doi:10.1603/0022-2585(2006)43[853:GAMEFP]2.0.CO;2
[28] Letouzey, R. (1969) Etude phytogéographique du cameroun. Le Chevalier, Paris, 1-513.
[29] Gouteux, J.P. and Lancien, J. (1986) The pyramidal trap for collecting and controlling tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae). Comparative trials and description of new collecting technics. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 37, 61-66.
[30] Patterson, J.S. and Schofield, C.J. (2005) Preliminary study of wing morphometry in relation to tsetse population genetics. South African Journal of Science, 101, 132- 134.
[31] Mamoudou, A., Zoli, A., Hamadama, H., Bourdanne, Abah, S., Geerts, S., Clausen, P.H., Zessin, K.H., Kyule, M. and Van Den Bossche, P. (2008) Seasonal distribution and abundance of tsetse flies (Glossina spp) in the Faro and Deo Division of the Adamaoua Plateau in Cameroon. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 22, 32-36. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2915.2008.00711.x
[32] Awa, D.N., Achukwi, M.D., Manchang, T.K., Enam, J., Tenghe, A.M.M., Niba, E., Mfopit, M.Y. and Nain, C.W. (2009) The veterinary input sector and animal health management in traditional live-stock systems of north Cameroon. 3èmes Journées de Recherches en Sciences sociales. INRA, SFER, CIRAD, Montpellier.
[33] Mamoudou, A., Zoli, A., Mbahin, N., Tanenbe, C., Bourdanne, Clausen, P.H., Marcotty, T., Van den Bossche P. and Geerts, S. (2006) Prevalence and incidence of bovine trypanosomosis on the Adamaoua plateau in Cameroon 10 years after the tsetse eradication campaign. Veterinary Parasitology, 142, 16-22. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.06.033
[34] Vreysen, M.J.B., Saleh, K.M., Ali, M.Y., Abdullah, M.A., Zhu, Z.R., Juma, K.G., Dyck, V.A., Masangi, A.R., Mkonyi, P.M. and Feldmann, H.U. (2000) Glossina austeni (Diptera: Glossinidae) eradicated on the Island of Unguja, Zanzibar, using the sterile insect technique. Journal of Economic Entomology, 93, 123-135. doi:10.1603/0022-0493-93.1.123

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.