Variable Temperature Laser Light Scattering Microscopy (VTLLSM) Studies on 10-100 μm Size High Purity Gold and Commercial Grade Zinc Grains

.
DOI: 10.4236/msa.2010.16048   PDF   HTML     3,719 Downloads   6,671 Views  

Abstract

The VTLLS microscopy studies were made on high purity gold and commercial grade zinc grains in a temperature range of 30-230?C. Differential area ω and surface activity Sa were estimated from photomicrographs. The ω vs dT/dt (rate of heating) curve was seen to differ from those of silver and titanium. The nature of curve between normalized ω and dT/dt was seen to be non-exponential. The characteristic relation between sectorized differential area ωsec and mean temperature was examined. The present study further establishes the simplicity and versatility of the VTLLS technique, in studying the defect-sub-structure of metal particles such as Au and Zn in presence of an imposed temperature gradient in a reasonable way. As such an attempt was made to connect the ω and defect-sub-structure related parameters.

Share and Cite:

P. Rao, P. Prasad and P. Shashikanth, "Variable Temperature Laser Light Scattering Microscopy (VTLLSM) Studies on 10-100 μm Size High Purity Gold and Commercial Grade Zinc Grains," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 1 No. 6, 2010, pp. 329-335. doi: 10.4236/msa.2010.16048.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] W. Triftshauser and G. Kogel, In: J. I. Takamura, M. Doyama and M. Kiritani, Eds., Point Defects and Defect Interactions in Metals, University of Tokyo Press, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1982, p. 15.
[2] E. Recknagel and Th. Wichert, “Defects in Metals Studied by Implanted Radioactve Atoms,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods, Vol. 182, No. 1, 1981, pp. 439-455.
[3] M. Minier and C. Minier, “Screeing Charge Density around Several ΔZ = -1 Impurities in Copper: Nickel, Palladium, Platinum, and Vacancy,” Physical Review B, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1980, pp. 21-27.
[4] G. Vogl, W. Petry, K. Sassa and S. Mantl, In: J. I. Takamura, M. Doyama and M. Kiritani, Eds., Point Defects and Defect Interactions in Metals, University of Tokyo Press, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1982, p. 33.
[5] H. Peisl, “Diffuse X-Ray Scattering from the Displacement Field of Point Defects and Defect Clusters,” Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1975, pp. 143-149.
[6] P. B. V. Prasad, K. R. Gopal and Ch. V. Gopal, “Laser Light Scattering Studies on Small Metal Grains: Case of Al, Cu and Ag,” Proceedings of Solid State Physics (India), Vol. 43, 2000, pp. 142-143.
[7] P. B. Shashikanth, P. B. V. Prasad and G. S. Rao, “Oblique Incidence Reflection Microscopy (OIRM) on Hydrocarbon Films,” Crystal Research Technology, Vol. 34, No. 10, 1999, pp. 1287-1292.
[8] P. B. V. Prasad and P. B. Shashikanth, “Variable Temperature Laser Light Scattering Microscopy Studies on High Purity 10-100 μm Ag and Ti Metal Particles,” Materials Science and Technology, DOI: 10.1179/ 026708310X12688283410361.
[9] P. Sita Rama Rao, P. B. V. Prasad and P. B. Shashikanth, “On the Behaviour of Au and Pb-Sn Metal Grains Subjected to Heat: A Variable Temperature Laser Light Scattering Microscopy Study,” Materials Science: An Indian Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2009, pp. 428-432.
[10] P. B. V. Prasad and P. B. Shashikanth, “Design and Fabrication of a 20 cm2 Table Having Zero Thermal Expansion in Positive Vertical Direction (V+ZET),” Proceedings of National Conference on Current Trends in Condensed Matter Research, Warangal, 2004, p. 23.
[11] P. B. V. Prasad and P. B. Shashikanth, “A Large Working Distance Microscope for High Temperature Studies,” Proceedings of National Conference on Perspectives in Engineering Optics & Spectroscopy, Meerut, 2004, p. 40.
[12] P. B. V. Prasad and P. B. Shashikanth, “Laser Light Scattering Microscopy: Interpretation of Images,” Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Science, Vol. 12, No. 6, 2005, pp. 591-594.
[13] P. B. V. Prasad and P. B. Shashikanth, “On Imaging Metal Grains at High Temperature: Laser Light Scattering Microscopy,” Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Science, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2006, pp. 162-166.
[14] R. H. Doremus, “Optical Properties of Small Gold Particles,” Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 40, No. 8, 1964, pp. 2389-2396.
[15] C. G. Granqvist and O. Hunderi, “Optical Properties of Ultrafine Gold Particles,” Physical Review-B, Vol. 16, No. 8, 1977, pp. 3513-3534.
[16] S. Hassam, M. Gambino and J. P. Bros, “The Ag+Au+Pb System: Determination of Liquidus Interface,” Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 257, 1995, pp. 83-92.
[17] S. Hassam and Z. Bahari, “Equilibrium Phase Diagram of the Ag-Au-Pb Ternary System,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 392, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 120-126.
[18] P. B. Shashikanth and P. Sita Rama Rao, “Variable Temperature Laser Light Scattering Microscopy Studies on 10-100 μm Size Grains of Gold, Aluminum, Zinc and Titanium: Role of Relaxation Time in Thermally Triggered Volume Changes,” Materials Science an Indian Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2010, pp. 68-70.
[19] K. Koopman, In: K. Koopman, Ed., Informatie Boek Vwo-Havo Voor Het on Derwiji in De Natuurwetenschappen, Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen, 1986, p. 89.
[20] R. A. Walsh, “Machining and Metal Working Handbook,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1994.
[21] R. C. Weast, “CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics,” CRC Press, Florida, 1988.
[22] D. Mckie and C. Mckie, “Crystalline Solids,” John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1974.
[23] V. E. Zinovev, “Handbook of Thermophysical Properties of Metals at High Temperatures,” Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, 1996.
[24] T. Kino and K. Ono, In: J. I. Takamura, M. Doyama and M. Kiritani, Eds., Point Defects and Defect Interactions in Metals, University of Tokyo Press, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1982, p. 247.
[25] M. Kiritani and H. Takaka, “Dynamic Studies of Defect Mobility Using High Voltage Electron Microscopy,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 69-70, 1978, pp. 277-309.
[26] J. Takamura, In: J. I. Takamura, M. Doyama and M. Kiritani, Eds., Point Defects and Defect Interactions in Metals, University of Tokyo Press, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1982, p. 431.
[27] E. Rose, “The Condensed Chemical Dictionary,” 7th Edition, Reinhold Publishing Co., New York, 1961.
[28] J. P. Ganne and J. von Stebut, “Measurement of the Intrinsic Thermal Expansion of Irradiation Defects in Aluminum at Low Temperatre,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 43, No. 9, 1979, pp. 634-636.
[29] R. W. Baluffi, “Vacancy Defect Mobilities and Binding Energies Obtained from Annealing Studies,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 69-70, 1978, pp. 240-263.
[30] A. R. Konak, “Single Versus Suspension Growth,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1974, pp. 67-68.
[31] P. Bennema, “The Rate of Growth of Crystals from Slightly Supersaturated Solutions,” Ph.D. Thesis, Technical University of Delft, Delft, 1965.
[32] P. B. V. Prasad, “Dispersion in Crystal Growth Rates: Palmiticacid-Xylene System,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 102, No. 3, 1990, pp. 569-573.
[33] M. Chen, E. Ma and K. Hemker, “Mechanical Behavior of Nanocrystalline Metals,” In: Y. Gogotsi, Ed., Nanomaterials Handbook, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, 2006, pp. 407-529.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.