The Technique of Enhancing the Transdermal Penetration for the Gold Nanoparticles and Perspectives of Application


Background: In recent years, worldwide attention of researchers focused on the practical implementation of nanoscale materials in biomedical technology. It’s proved that intravenous injected gold nanoparticles are accumulated in tumor tissues. However, when gold nanoparticles injected intravenously negative effects in the internal organs of experimental animals are observed. 160 nm diameter particles affect the wall of blood vessels, resulting in vacuolar degeneration of endothelial cells. Particles with a diameter of 50 nm lead to more expressed changes in the internal organs. Injection of the particles diameter of 15 nm causes moderate degeneration of parenchymal cells of internal organs and circulatory disorders. Materials and Methods: In current research, for the first time using the methods of experimental pathology the permeability of intact and damaged skin for nanoscale gold particles in combination with organosulfur compounds—imethylsulfoxide and tiofansulfoxide were studied. We used 140 male outbred white rats with an average weight 150 - 200 grams. All the animals were divided into one control and three experimental groups. Results: Laser microperforation skin with ultrasound treatment can provide good skin permeability, but in contrast to use of agents with organosulfur compounds inflammatory reaction, the destruction of superficial and deep skin tissue structural elements are observed. The comparative efficacy of dimethylsulfoxide and tiofansulfoxide for transdermal permeability of gold nanoparticles was studied. It’s proved that in topical application solution of nanoparticles with organosulfur compounds negative effects of the accumulation of nanoparticles in the internal organs, disorders of organ and tissue microcirculation, development in the degenerative changes are not observed. We found that the depth of penetration of damaged skin (contact dermatitis) for the gold nanoparticles in combination with organosulfur compounds, and ultrasound exposure is substantially higher than the penetration of intact skin.

Share and Cite:

R. Khayrullin, G. Terentyuk, M. Savenkova and E. Genina, "The Technique of Enhancing the Transdermal Penetration for the Gold Nanoparticles and Perspectives of Application," Journal of Cancer Therapy, Vol. 4 No. 6A, 2013, pp. 48-55. doi: 10.4236/jct.2013.46A1008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] R. M. Khayrullin, G. S. Terentyuk, M. V. Savenkova, et al., “Morphological Study of the Permeability the Skin and Placenta of the Rat for the Gold Nanoparticles,” International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy, Vol. 6, 2012, p. 84.
[2] L. Norlen, M. S. Roberts and K. A. Walters, “The Physical Structure of the Skin Barrier, Dermal Absorption and Toxicity Assessment,” CRC Press Inc., New York, 2008, pp. 37-68.
[3] K. Bhaskar, J. Anbu, V. Ravichandiran, et al., “Lipid Nanoparticles for Transdermal Delivery of Flurbiprofen: Formulation, in Vitro, ex Vivo and in Vivo Studies,” Lipids in Health and Disease, Vol. 8, No. 6, 2009, p. 6. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-8-6
[4] J. Luengo, B. Weiss, M. Schneider, et al., “Influence of Nanoencapsulation on Human Skin Transport of Flufenamic Acid,” Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2006, pp. 190-197. doi:10.1159/000093114
[5] B. Baroli, “Penetration of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials in the Skin: Fiction or Reality?” The Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 99, No. 1, 2010, pp. 21-50. doi:10.1002/jps.21817
[6] S. Battah, S. Balaratnam, A. Casas, et al., “Macromolecular Delivery of 5-Aminolaevulinic Acid for Photodynamic Therapy Using Dendrimer Conjugates,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2007, pp. 876-885. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-06-0359
[7] S. Battah, S. O’Neill, C. Edwards, et al., “Enhanced Porphyrin Accumulation Using Dendritic Derivatives of 5-Aminolaevulinic Acid for Photodynamic Therapy: An in Vitro Study,” The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, Vol. 38, No. 8, 2006, pp. 1382-1392. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2006.02.001
[8] S. Erdogan, “Liposomal Nanocarriers for Tumor Imaging,” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2009, pp. 141-150. doi:10.1166/jbn.2009.1016
[9] N. Nishiyama, Y. Morimoto, W. D. Jang and K. Kataoka, “Design and Development of Dendrimer PhotosensitizerIncorporated Polymeric Micelles for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, Vol. 61, No. 4, 2009, pp. 327-338. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2009.01.004
[10] G. Oberdorster, A. Maynard, K. Donaldson, et al., “Principles for Characterizing the Potential Human Health Effects from Exposure to Nanomaterials: Elements of a Screening Strategy,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, Vol. 2, No. 8, 2005, p. 8. doi:10.1186/1743-8977-2-8
[11] T. W. Prow, W. A. Rose, N. Wang, et al., “BiosensorControlled Gene Therapy/Drug Delivery with Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine,” Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems III, Vol. 5629, No. 1, 2005, pp. 199-208. doi:10.1117/12.589422
[12] M. S. Roberts, “The Latest Science (Including Safety) on Nanotechnology and Skin Penetration,” FDA Public Hearing on the Science of Nanomaterials, Washington DC, 2006.
[13] V. V. Venuganti and O. P. Perumal, “Poly(Amidoamine) Dendrimers as Skin Penetration Enhancers: Influence of Charge, Generation, and Concentration,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 98, No. 7, 2009, pp. 2345-2356. doi:10.1002/jps.21603
[14] M. S. Roberts, Y. Dancik, T. W. Prow, et al., “Non-Invasive Imaging of Skin Physiology and Percutaneous Penetration Using Fluorescence Spectral and Lifetime Imaging with Multiphoton and Confocal Microscopy,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Vol. 77, No. 3, 2011, pp. 469-488. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2010.12.023
[15] J. P. Ryman-Rasmussen, J. E. Riviere, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, “Surface Coatings Determine Cytotoxicity and Irritation Potential of Quantum Dot Nanoparticles in Epidermal Keratinocytes,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Vol. 127, No. 1, 2007, pp. 143-153. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700508
[16] R. T. Tregear, “The Permeability of Mammalian Skin to Ions,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Vol. 46, No. 1, 1966, pp. 16-23.
[17] U. Munster, C. Nakamura, A. Haberland, et al., “RU 58841-Myristate—Prodrug Development for Topical Treatment of Acne and Androgenetic Alopecia,” Pharmazie, Vol. 60, No. 1, 2005, pp. 8-12.
[18] B. S. Kim, M. Won, K. M. Lee and C. S. Kim, “In Vitro Permeation Studies of Nanoemulsions Containing Ketoprofen as a Model Drug,” Drug Delivery, Vol. 15, No. 7, 2008, pp. 465-469. doi:10.1080/10717540802328599
[19] A. Vogt, B. Combadiere, S. Hadam, et al., “40 nm, But Not 750 or 1500 nm, Nanoparticles Enter Epidermal CD1a+ Cells after Transcutaneous Application on Human Skin,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Vol. 126, No. 6, 2006, pp. 1316-1322. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700226
[20] X. Wu, G. J. Price and R. H. Guy, “Disposition of Nanoparticles and an Associated Lipophilic Permeant Following Topical Application to the Skin,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, Vol. 6, No. 5, 2009, pp. 1441-1448. doi:10.1021/mp9001188
[21] Y. Zhao, M. B. Brown and S. A. Jones, “The Effects of Particle Properties on Nanoparticle Drug Retention and Release in Dynamic Minoxidil Foams,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Vol. 383, No. 1-2, 2010, pp. 277-284. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.09.029

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.