Investigation on the Catalytic Behavior of Fe Loaded on Encapsulated Titanium for Sonocatalytic Degradation of Amaranth: Characterization and Reusability Study

DOI: 10.4236/mrc.2013.23015   PDF   HTML     3,138 Downloads   6,451 Views   Citations

Abstract

The present study addressed the properties affecting the activity of a new heterogeneous catalyst Fe/Ti-NaY in the ultrasonic irradiated for decolorization of amaranth dye in aqueous solution. The catalyst was prepared by the ion exchange and impregnation method. Different characterization techniques, i.e. XRD, AFM, TEM and SEM/EDAX were done to characterize the properties of the fresh and used catalyst. This catalyst was able to keep its stability and high activity without any noticeable reduction in the decolorization efficiency of amaranth after three cycles of reaction. The X-ray diffraction proved the high stability and the crystallinity for the reuse catalyst. The COD removal for the fresh and used catalyst with and without calcination was 57%, 36% and 20% respectively. The hydrophilic properties of the heterogeneous catalyst increased slightly due to the loading of Ti and Fe ions.

Share and Cite:

A. Alwash, A. Abdullah and N. Ismail, "Investigation on the Catalytic Behavior of Fe Loaded on Encapsulated Titanium for Sonocatalytic Degradation of Amaranth: Characterization and Reusability Study," Modern Research in Catalysis, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2013, pp. 100-109. doi: 10.4236/mrc.2013.23015.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] C. G. Joseph, G. L. Puma, A. Bono and D. Krishnaiah, “Sonophotocatalysis in Advanced Oxidation Process: A Short Review,” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2009, pp. 583-589. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2009.02.002
[2] N. Wang, L. Zhu, M. Wang, D. Wang and H. Tang, “Sono-Enhanced Degradation of Dye Pollutants with the Use of H2O2 Activated by Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles as Peroxidase Mimetic,” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2010, pp. 78-83. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2009.06.014
[3] D. H. Bremner, R. Molina, F. Martinez, J. A. Melero and Y. Segura, “Degradation of Phenolic Aqueous Solutions by High Frequency Sono-Fenton Systems (US-Fe2O3/SBA-15-H2O2),” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 90, No. 3-4, 2009, pp. 380-388. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2009.03.028
[4] X. Zhong, S. Royer, H. Zhang, Q. Huang, L. Xiang, S. Valange and J. Barrault, “Mesoporous Silica Iron-Doped as Stable and Efficient Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Degradation of C.I. Acid Orange 7 Using Sono-Photo-Fenton Process,” Separation and Purification Technology, Vol. 80, No. 1, 2011, pp. 163-171. doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2011.04.024
[5] A. N. Okte and O. Yilmaz, “La and Ce Loaded TiO2-ZSM-5 Catalysts: Comparative Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity Investigations,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 126, No. 3, 2009, pp. 245-252. doi:10.1016/j.micromeso.2009.06.013
[6] V. Mirkhani, S. Tangestaninejad, M. Moghadam, M. Habibi and A. Rostami-Vartooni, “Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dyes Catalyzed by Ag Doped TiO2 Photocatalyst,” Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society (JICS), Vol. 6, No. 3, 2009, pp. 578-587. doi:10.1007/BF03246537
[7] N. A. Jamalluddin and A. Z. Abdullah, “Reactive Dye Degradation by Combined Fe(III)/TiO2 Catalyst and Ultrasonic Irradiation: Effect of Fe(III) Loading and Calcination Temperature,” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2011, pp. 669-678. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2010.09.004
[8] J. Wang, Y. Lv, L. Zhang, B. Liu, R. Jiang, G. Han, R. Xu and X. Zhang, “Sonocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes and Comparison of Catalytic Activities of CeO2/ TiO2, SnO2/TiO2 and ZrO2/TiO2 Composites under Ultrasonic Irradiation,” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2010, pp. 642-648. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2009.12.016
[9] Y. L. Pang and A. Z. Abdullah, “Effect of Carbon and Nitrogen Co-Doping on Characteristics and Sonocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanotubes Catalyst for Degradation of Rhodamine B in Water,” Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 214, 2013, pp. 129-138. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2012.10.036
[10] L. Zhu, Z.-D. Meng, C.-Y. Park, T. Ghosh and W.-C. Oh, “Characterization and Relative Sonocatalytic Efficiencies of a New MWCNT and CdS Modified TiO2 Catalysts and Their Application in the Sonocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B,” Ultrasonic Sonochemistry, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2013, pp. 478-484. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2012.08.005.
[11] A. N. Okte and O. Yilmaz, “Characteristics of Lanthanum Loaded TiO2-ZSM-5 Photocatalysts: Decolorization and Degradation Processes of Methyl Orange,” Applied Catalysis A: General, Vol. 354, No. 1-2, 2009, pp. 132-142. doi:10.1016/j.apcata.2008.11.022
[12] R. J. Tayade, R. G. Kulkarni and R. V. Jasra, “Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2-Coated NaY and HY Zeolites for the Degradation of Methylene Blue in Water,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2007, pp. 369-376. doi:10.1021/ie060641o
[13] X. Liu, K.-K. Iu and J. K. Thomas, “Encapsulation of TiO2 in Zeolite Y,” Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 195, No. 2-3, 1992, pp. 163-168. doi:10.1016/0009-2614(92)86129-6
[14] E. P. Reddy, L. Davydov and P. Smirniotis, “TiO2-Loaded Zeolites and Mesoporous Materials in the Sonophotocatalytic Decomposition of Aqueous Organic Pollutants: The Role of the Support,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2003, pp. 1-11. doi:10.1016/S0926-3373(02)00192-3
[15] S. Easwaramoorthi and P. Natarajan, “Photophysical Properties of Phenosafranine (PHNS) Adsorbed on the TiO2-Incorporated Zeolite-Y,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 86, No. 1-3, 2005, pp. 185-190. doi:10.1016/j.micromeso.2005.07.009
[16] G. P. Joshi, N. S. Saxena, T. P. Sharma and S. C. K. Mishra, “Measurement of Thermal Transport and optical Properties of Conducting Polyaniline,” Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, Vol. 44, No. 10, 2006, pp. 786-790.
[17] J. Choi, H. Park and M. R. Hoffmann, “Effects of Single Metal-Ion Doping on the Visible-Light Photoreactivity of TiO2,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 114, No. 2, 2010, pp. 783-792. doi:10.1021/jp908088x
[18] Y. Wu, J. Zhang, L. Xiao and F. Chen, “Preparation and Characterization of TiO2 Photocatalysts by Fe3+ Doping Together with Au Deposition for the Degradation of Organic Pollutants,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 88, No. 3-4, 2009, pp. 525-532. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2008.10.008
[19] I. Guth and S. Lukic, “The Influence of Iron on the Optical Energy Gap in Glasses of Sb-SI Type,” Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2001, pp. 903-908.
[20] W. Choi, A. Termin and M. R. Hoffmann, “The Role of Metal Ion Dopants in Quantum-Sized TiO2: Correlation between Photoreactivity and Charge Carrier Recombination Dynamics,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 98, No. 51, 1994, pp. 13669-13679. doi:10.1021/j100102a038
[21] N. A. Jamalluddin and Z. A. Ahmad, “Effect of pH and Catalyst Dosage on the Leaching of Fe from Fe (III) Doped Zeolite Y Used for Sonocatalytic Degradation of Acid Red B, ” Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2011, pp. 860-865.
[22] Y. Xu and C. H. Langford, “Enhanced Photoactivity of a Titanium (IV) Oxide Supported on ZSM5 and Zeolite A at Low Coverage,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 99, No. 29, 1995, pp. 11501-11507. doi:10.1021/j100029a031
[23] P. Castano, B. Pawelec, J. L. G. Fierro, J. M. Arandes and J. Bilbao, “Aromatics Reduction of Pyrolysis Gasoline (PyGas) over HY-Supported Transition Metal Catalysts,” Applied Catalysis A: General, Vol. 315, 2006, pp. 101-113. doi:10.1016/j.apcata.2006.09.009
[24] A. K. Kondru, P. Kumar and S. Chand, “Catalytic Wet Peroxide Oxidation of Azo Dye (Congo Red) Using Modified Y Zeolite as Catalyst,” Journal of Hazardous Ma-Terials, Vol. 166, No. 1, 2009, pp. 342-347. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.11.042
[25] M. Noorjahan, V. D. Kumari, M. Subrahmanyam and L. Panda, “Immobilized Fe(III)-HY: An Efficient and Stable Photo-Fenton Catalyst,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 57, No. 4, 2005, pp. 291-298. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2004.11.006
[26] M. B. Kasiri, H. Aleboyeh and A. Aleboyeh, “Degradation of Acid Blue 74 Using Fe-ZSM5 Zeolite as a Heterogeneous Photo-Fenton Catalyst,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 84, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 9-15. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2008.02.024
[27] N. Panda, H. Sahoo and S. Mohapatra, “Decolourization of Methyl Orange Using Fenton-Like Mesoporous Fe2O3-SiO2 Composite,” Journal of Hazardous materials, Vol. 185, No. 1, 2011, pp. 359-365. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.09.042

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.