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Effect of exogenous somatotropin and staged ovariectomy on mRNA expression of select ECM-related proteins in mammary tissue of prepubertal Holstein calves

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DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.33024    3,328 Downloads   4,649 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Growth hormone (GH) and estrogen are essential stimulators of mammary cell proliferation and mammary development as mammals near puberty. Mammary ductal growth requires modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM) for this tissue expansion to occur. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of exogenous GH and ovariectomy (known to impact estrogen production) on gene expression of selected ECM proteins in the mammary parenchyma (PAR) and mammary fat pad (MFP) of prepubertal calves. Our hypothesis was that both GH and ovariectomy would alter the mRNA expression of multiple mammary ECM proteins. However, treatment with GH significantly reduced the expression of only fibronectin in PAR. However, the mRNA expression of all of the ECM proteins tested was numerically lower in PAR from GH treated calves. In contrast, staged ovariectomy decreased expression of fibronectin and heat shock protein 90 but increased expression of epimorphin in mammary PAR. In the MFP expression of Rac-1 and fascin were increased. These findings suggest that effects of exogenous GH on mammary gland composition are only marginally dependent on alterations in ECM proteins but the more pronounced effects of ovariectomy (reduced PAR mass and altered myoepithelial ontogeny) are more likely linked to changes in expression of ECM proteins.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Huderson, B. , Velayudhan, B. , Pearson, R. , Ellis, S. and Akers, R. (2013) Effect of exogenous somatotropin and staged ovariectomy on mRNA expression of select ECM-related proteins in mammary tissue of prepubertal Holstein calves. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 3, 160-168. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2013.33024.

References

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[63] Sinha, Y.N. and Tucker, H.A. (1969) Mammary development and pituitary prolactin level of heifers from birth through puberty and during the estrous cycle. Journal of Dairy Science, 52, 507-512. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(69)86595-1
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[70] Hovey, R. and Aimo, L. (2010) Diverse and active roles for adipocytes during mammary gland growth and function. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 15, 279-290. doi:10.1007/s10911-010-9187-8
[71] Su, Y., Shankar, K., Rahal, O. and Simmen, R.C.M. (2011) Bidirectional signaling of mammary epithelium and stroma: Implications for breast cancer—Preventive actions of dietary factors. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 22, 605-611. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2010.09.008
[72] Maller, O., Martinson, H. and Schedin, P. (2010) Extracellular matrix composition reveals complex and dynamic stromal-epithelial interactions in the mammary gland. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 15, 301-318. doi:10.1007/s10911-010-9189-6
[73] Piantoni, P., Bionaz, M., Graugnard, D.E., Daniels, K.M., Akers, R.M. and Loor, J.J. (2008) Gene expression ratio stability evaluation in prepubertal bovine mammary tissue from calves fed different milk replacers reveals novel internal controls for quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Nutrition, 138, 1158-1164.
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[75] Woodward, T.L., Mienaltowski, A.S., Modi, R.R., Bennett, J.M. and Haslam, S.Z. (2001) Fibronectin and the alpha(5)beta(1) integrin are under developmental and ovarian steroid regulation in the normal mouse mammary gland. Endocrinology, 142, 3214-3222. doi:10.1210/en.142.7.3214
[76] Haslam, S.Z. and Woodward, T.L. (2001) Reciprocal regulation of extracellular matrix proteins and ovarian steroid activity in the mammary gland. Breast Cancer Research, 3, 365-372. doi:10.1186/bcr324
[77] Berry, S.D., Howard, R.D., Jobst, P.M., Jiang, H. and Akers R.M. (2003) Interactions between the ovary and the local IGF-I axis modulate mammary development in prepubertal heifers. Journal of Endocrinology, 177, 295304. doi:10.1677/joe.0.1770295
[78] Hansen, R.K. and Bissell, M.J. (2000) Tissue architecture and breast cancer: The role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones. Endocrine-Related Cancer, 7, 95113. doi:10.1677/erc.0.0070095
[79] Ferguson, J.E., Schor, A.M., Howell A. and Ferguson M.W. (1992) Changes in the extracellular matrix of the normal human breast during the menstrual cycle. Cell and Tissue Research, 268, 167-177. doi:10.1007/BF00338066
[80] Bascom, J.L., Fata, J.E., Hirai, Y., Sternlicht, M.D. and Bissell, M.J. (2005) Epimorphin overexpression in the mouse mammary gland promotes alveolar hyperplasia and mammary adenocarcinoma. Cancer Research, 65, 8617-8621. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1985
[81] Hirai, Y., Lochter, A., Galosy, S., Koshida, S., Niwa, S. and Bissell, M.J. (1998) Epimorphin functions as a key morphoregulator for mammary epithelial cells. The Journal of Cell Biology, 140, 159-169. doi:10.1083/jcb.140.1.159
[82] Safayi, S., Korn, N., Bertram, A., Akers, R.M., Capuco, A.V., Pratt, S.L. and Ellis, S. (2012) Myoepithelial cell differentiation markers in prepubertal bovine mammary gland: Effect of ovariectomy. Journal of Dairy Science, 95, 2965-2976. doi:10.3168/jds.2011-4690
[83] Gudjonsson, T., Adriance, M.C., Sternlicht, M.D. Petersen, O.W. and Bissell, M.J. (2005) Myoepithelial cells: Their origin and function in breast morphogenesis and neoplasia. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 10, 261-272. doi:10.1007/s10911-005-9586-4
[84] Echeverria, P.C. and Picard, D. (2010) Molecular chaperones, essential partners of steroid hormone receptors for activity and mobility. Biochemica Biophysica Acta, 1803, 641-649. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2009.11.012
[85] Sanchez, E.R. (2012) Chaperoning steroidal physiology: Lessons from mouse genetic models of Hsp90 and its cochaperones. Biochimica Biophysica Acta, 1823, 722-729. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2011.11.006
[86] Diehl, M.C., Idowu, M.O., Kimmelshue, K., York, T.P., Elmore L.W. and Holt, S.E. (2009) Elevated expression of nuclear Hsp90 in invasive breast tumors. Cancer Biology & Therapy, 8, 1952-1961. doi:10.4161/cbt.8.20.9639
[87] ] Keely, P.J., Westwick, J.K., Whitehead, I.P., Der, C.J. and Parise L.V. (1997) Cdc42 and Rac1 induce integrinmediated cell motility and invasiveness through PI(3)K. Nature, 390, 632-636. doi:10.1038/37656
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