Molecular Genetic Diversity in Iranian Populations of Puccinia triticina, the Causal Agent of Wheat Leaf Rust


Wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina, is the most common and widely distributed wheat rust in the world. In order to study the genetic structure of leaf rust population 14 pairs of AFLP and 6 pairs of FAFLP primers evaluated on 86 isolates samples collected in Iran during spring of 2009. Results showed that almost all investigated isolates were genetically different and special pattern of AFLP allele’s that confirm high genetic diversity within leaf rust population was observed. Analyses showed, all provinces were classified into three major groups particularly similar clusters were found between then neighboring provinces. Rust spore can follow the migration pattern in short and long distances to neighbor in provinces. Results indicated that the greatest variability was revealed by 97% of genetic differentiation within leaf rust populations and the lesser variation of 3% was observed between the rust populations. These results suggested that each population was not completely identical and high gene flow has occurred among the leaf rust population of different provinces. The highest differentiation and genetic distance among the Iranian leaf rust populations was detected between leaf rust population in Sistan and Baluchistan and highest similarity was observed between in Ardabil provinces. The high pathogenic variability of leaf rust races in Ardabil and Northern Khorasan may be an indication that these two regions are the center of origin of pathogenic arability. Present study shows that leaf rust population in Iran is highly dynamic and variable.

Share and Cite:

S. Dadrezaie, S. Lababidi, K. Nazari, E. Goltapeh, F. Afshari, F. Alo, M. Shams-Bakhsh and N. Safaie, "Molecular Genetic Diversity in Iranian Populations of Puccinia triticina, the Causal Agent of Wheat Leaf Rust," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 1375-1386. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.47168.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. Huerta-Espino, R. P. Singh, S. S. Germán, B. D. McCallum, R. F. Park, W. Q. Chen, S. C. Bhardwaj and H. Goyeau, “Global Status of Wheat Leaf Rust Caused by Puccinia triticina,” Euphytica, Vol. 179, No. 1, 2011, pp. 143-160. doi:10.1007/s10681-011-0361-x
[2] M. E. Ordonez, S. E. German and J. A. Kolmer, “Genetic Differentiation within the Puccinia triticina Population in South America and Comparison with the North American Population Suggests Common Ancestry and Inters Continental Migration,” Phytopathology, Vol. 100, No. 4, 2010, pp. 376-383. doi:10.1094/PHYTO-100-4-0376
[3] M. Torabi, V. Mardoukhi, A. Froutan, M. Aliramaei, S. T. Dadrezaie, H. A. Moghaddam, S. Rajaei and H. Azimi, “Virulence Genes of Puccinia recondita f. sp. Tritici, the Causal Agent of Wheat Leaf Rust in Some Regions of Iran during 1995-1999,” Seed and Plant, Vol. 18, 2003, pp. 432-449.
[4] S. T. Dadrezaei, E. M. Goltapeh, F. Afshari and K. Nazari, “Identification of Pathotypes and Physiological Races of Puccinia triticina Eriks, the Casual Agent of Wheat Leaf Rust in the Iran in 2009-2010,” Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2012, pp. 685-715.
[5] S. G. Markell and E. A. Milus, “Emergence of a Novel Population of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. Tritici in Eastern United States,” Phytopathology, Vol. 98, No. 6, 2008, pp. 632-639. doi:10.1094/PHYTO-98-6-0632
[6] J. A. Kolmer, J. Q. Liu and M. Sies, “Virulence and Molecular Polymorphism in Puccinia recondita f. sp. Tritici in Canada,” Phytopathology, Vol. 85, No. 3, 1995, pp. 276-285. doi:10.1094/Phyto-85-276
[7] J. A. Kolmer, “Molecular Polymorphism and Virulence Phenotypes of the Wheat Leaf Rust Fungus Puccinia triticina in Canada,” Canadian Journal of Botany, Vol. 79, No. 8, 2001, pp. 917-926.
[8] X. Liu, C. Huang, Z. Sun, J. Liang, Y. Luo and Z. Ma, “Analysis of Population Structure of Puccinia striiformis in Yunnan Province of China by Using AFLP,” European Journal of Plant Pathology, Vol. 129, No. 1, 2011, pp. 43-55. doi:10.1007/s10658-010-9688-8
[9] F. J. Keiper, M. J. Hayden, R. F. Park and C. R. Wellings, “Molecular Genetic Variability of Australian Isolates of Five Cereal Rust Pathogens,” Mycological Research, Vol. 107, No. 5, 2003, pp. 545-556. doi:10.1017/S0953756203007809
[10] J. G. Menzies, G. Bakkeren, F. Matheson, J. D. Procunier and S. Woods, “Use of Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms to Analyze Genetic Relationships among Small Grain-Infecting Species of Ustilago,” Phytopathology, Vol. 93, No. 2, 2003, pp. 167-175. doi:10.1094/PHYTO.2003.93.2.167
[11] H Schmidt, L Niessen and R. F. Vogel, “AFLP Analysis of Fusarium Species in the Section Sporotrichiella— Evidence for Fusarium Langsethiae as a New Species,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 95, No. 3, 2004, pp. 297-304. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2003.12.008
[12] B. A. McDonald, “The Population Genetics of Fungi: Tools and Techniques,” Phytopathology, Vol. 87, No. 4, 1997, pp. 448-453. doi:10.1094/PHYTO.1997.87.4.448
[13] J. A. Kolmer, “Physiologic Specialization of Puccinia recondita f. sp. Tritici in Canada in 1991,” Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1993, pp. 34-36. doi:10.1080/07060669309500847
[14] J. K. M. Brown, “The Choice of Molecular Marker Methods for Population Genetic Studies of Plant Pathogens,” New Phytologist, Vol. 133, No. 1, 1996, pp. 183-195. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1996.tb04353.x
[15] J. N. Goulding, J. V. Hookey, J. Stanley, W. Olver, K. R., Neal, D. A. AlaAldeen and C. Arnold, “Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism Genotyping of Neisseria meningitidis Identifies Clones Associated with Invasive Disease,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol. 38, No. 12, 2000, pp. 4580-4585.
[16] R. A. McIntosh, C. R. Wellings and R. F. Park, “Wheat Rusts: An Atlas of Resistance Genes,” Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1995. doi:10.1007/978-94-011-0083-0
[17] P. Vos, R. Hogers, M. Rijans, T. Vandelee, M. Horens, A. Fijters, J. Pot, J. Peleman, M. Kuiper and M. Zabeau, “AFLP: A New Technique for DNA Fingerprinting,” Nucleic Acides Research, Vol. 23, No. 21, 1995, pp. 44074414. doi:10.1093/nar/23.21.4407
[18] CIMMYT, “Laboratory Protocols: CIMMYT Applied Molecular Genetics Laboratory,” 3rd Edition, CIMMYT, Mexico City, 2005.
[19] B. A. McDonald and C. C. Linde, “Pathogen Population Genetics Evolutionary Potential and Durable Resistance,” Annual Review of Phytopathology, Vol. 40, 2002, pp. 349-379. doi:10.1146/annurev.phyto.40.120501.101443
[20] F. Bouftass, M. Labhilili, B. Ezzahiri and A. Ziouti, “Molecular Polymorphism of the Wheat Leaf Rust Fungus in Morocco Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism,” Phytopathology, Vol. 158, 2010, pp. 111116. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2009.01573.x
[21] M. Torabi, K. Nazari and F. Afshari, “Genetic of Pathogenicity of Puccinia recondita f. sp. Tritici, the Causal Agent of Leaf Rust of Wheat,” Iranian Journal of Agriculture Science, Vol. 32, 2001, pp. 625-635.
[22] M. Torabi, W. Mardouchi, K. Nazari, H. Golzar and A. S. Kashani, “Effectiveness of Wheat Yellow Rust Resistance Gene in Different Part of Iran,” Cereal Rust and Powdery Mildew Bulletin, Vol. 23, 1995, pp. 9-12.
[23] H. Rabaninasab, M. Okhovat, M.Torabi, M. Abbasi and J. Mozaffari, “Virulence and Molecular Diversity in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. Tritici form Iran,” Journal of Plant Protection, Vol. 22, 2008, pp. 4760.
[24] M. S. Hovmøllera, A. F Justesena and J. K. M. Brown, “Clonality and Long-Distance Migration of Puccinia striiformis f.sp. Tritici in North-West Europe,” Plant Pathology, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2002, pp. 24-32. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3059.2002.00652.x
[25] J. A. Kolmer and M. E. Ordonez, “Genetic Differentiation of Puccinia triticina Populations in Central Asia and the Caucasus,” Phytopathology, Vol. 97, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1141-1149. doi:10.1094/PHYTO-97-9-1141
[26] M. E. Ordonez and J. A. Kolmer, “Simple Sequences Repeat Diversity of a World-Wide Collection of Puccinia triticina from Durum Wheat,” Phytopathology, Vol. 97, No. 5, 2007, pp. 574-83. doi:10.1094/PHYTO-97-5-0574
[27] B. D. D’Oliveira and D. J. Samborski, “Aecial Stage of Puccinia recondita on Ranunculaceae and Boraginaceae in Portugal,” In: R. C. Macer and M. S. Wolfe, Eds., Proceedings of the First European Brown Rust Conference, Cambridge, 1966, pp. 133-150.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.