Soybean meal as a source of protein in formulated diets for tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus juvenile. Part II: Improving diet performances


The present study was conducted as a continuation of our previous study on the effects of fish meal replacement with soy bean meal, SBM in the diets of tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus which revealed the possible level of fish meal protein replacement of 30% with positive effect of phytase supplementation in one of the test diet. In the present study, all experimental diets with SBM inclusion (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% replacement levels) were supplemented with phytase and fed to juvenile tiger grouper with initial body weight of 44.57 ± 0.28 g for eight weeks. Apart from the effects on growth performance, diet utilization and fish whole-body composition, apparent digestibility coefficient of diets was also measured. Similar findings to our previous experiment were observed in the present study. Diet SM40P (40% replacement level) had produced the poorest growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR). However, it was observed that FCR of SM40P was improved when compared to SM40 (without phytase) in our previous experiment. Other than that, SBM-based diets were performed as good as the control diet in terms of growth, feed utilization and survival rate. Replacement of fish meal did not significantly influence body composition, except for whole body lipid content in SM40P. In general, dry matter and protein apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of the test diets were influenced by SBM inclusion in the diets. However, crude lipid ADC was very high in all dietary treatments indicating efficient utilization of dietary lipid by juvenile tiger grouper. The findings of the present study confirmed that SBM can be used to replace FM at a level of up to 30% and supplementation of phytase in SBM-based diets is recommended to improve the diet performance.

Share and Cite:

Shapawi, R. , Ebi, I. , Chong, M. , Chee, L. and Sade, A. (2013) Soybean meal as a source of protein in formulated diets for tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus juvenile. Part II: Improving diet performances. Agricultural Sciences, 4, 19-24. doi: 10.4236/as.2013.46A003.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Kumar, V., Sinha, A.K., Makkar, H.P.S., Boeck, G.De. and Becker, K. (2011) Phytate and phytase in fish nutrition. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 96, 335-364. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01169.x
[2] Wang, F., Yang, Y.H., Han, Z.Z., Dong, H.W., Yang, C.H. and Zou, Z.Y. (2009) Effects of phytase pretreatment of soybean meal and phytase-sprayed in diets on growth, apparent digestibility coefficient and nutrient excretion of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). Aquaculture International, 17, 143-157. doi:10.1007/s10499-008-9187-5
[3] Carter, C.G. and Sajjadi, M. (2011) Low fishmeal diets for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., using soy protein concentrate treated with graded levels of phytase. Aquaculture International, 19, 431-444. doi:10.1007/s10499-010-9358-z
[4] Biswas, A.K., Kaku, H., Ji, S.C., Seoka, M. and Takii, K. (2007) Use of soybean meal and phytase for partial replacement of fishmeal in the diet of red sea bream, Pagrus major. Aquaculture, 267, 284-291. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.01.014
[5] Rachmansyah, Usman, Makmur and Ahmad, T. (2005) Substitution of fishmeal with soybean meal in humpback grouper, Chromileptes altivelis juvenile diets supplemented with phytase. Indonesian Fisheries Research Journal, 11, 73-80.
[6] Shapawi, R., Ng, W.K. and Mustafa, S. (2007) Replacement of fish meal with poultry by-product meal in diets formulated for the humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis. Aquaculture, 237, 118-126. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.09.014
[7] Lin, H., Liu, Y., Tian, L., Wang, J., Zheng, W., Huang, J. and Chen, P. (2004) Apparent digestibility coefficients of arious feed ingredients for grouper Epinephelus coioides. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 35, 134-142. doi:10.1111/j.1749-7345.2004.tb01069.x
[8] Association of Official Analytical Chemists International (AOAC International) (1990) Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 16th Edition, AOAC International, Arlington.
[9] Furukawa, A. and Tsukahara, H. (1966) On the acid digestion method for the determination of chromic oxide as an index substance in the study of digestibility of fish diet. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 32, 502-506. doi:10.2331/suisan.32.502
[10] Fowler, L.G. (1980) Substitution of soybean and cottonseed products for fishmeal in diets fed to Chinook and coho salmon. Progressive Fish Culturist, 42, 86-91. doi:10.1577/1548-8659(1980)42[87:SOSACP]2.0.CO;2
[11] Hajen, W.E., Higgs, D.A., Beames, R.M. and Dosanjh, B.S. (1993) Digestibility of various dietstuffs by post juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in sea water: Measurement of digestibility. Aquaculture, 112, 333-348. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(93)90394-E
[12] Boonyaratpalin, M., Suraneiranat, P. and Tunpibal, T. (1998) Replacement of fish meal with various types of soybean products in diets for Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer. Aquaculture, 161, 67-78. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(97)00257-3
[13] Tomás, A., De La Gándara, F., Garcia-Gomez, A., Pérez, L. and Jover, M. (2005) Utilization of soybean meal as an alternative protein source in the Mediterranean yellowtail, Seriola dumerili. Aquaculture Nutrition, 11, 333-340. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2095.2005.00365.x
[14] Ogunkoya, A.E. Page, G.I., Adewolu, M.A. and Bureau, D.P. (2006) Dietary incorporation of soybean meal and exogeneous enzyme cocktail can affect physical characteristics of faecal material egested by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 254, 166-175. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.10.032
[15] NRC (National Research Council) (1993) Nutrition requirements of fish. National Academic Press, Washington DC.
[16] Cain K.D. and Garling D.L. (1995) Pretreatment of soybean meal with phytase for salmonid diets to reduce phosphorus concentrations in hatchery effluents. Progressive of Fish Culturist, 57, 114-119. doi:10.1577/1548-8640(1995)057<0114:POSMWP>2.3.CO;2
[17] Riche, M. and Brown P.B. (1996) Availability of phosphorus from feedstuffs fed to rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture, 142, 269-282. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(95)01218-4
[18] Francis, G., Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. (2001) Antinutritional factors present in plant derived alternate fish diet ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture, 199, 197-227. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00526-9
[19] Portz, L. and Liebert, F. (2004) Growth, nutrient utilization and parameters of mineral metabolism in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) fed plant-based diets with graded levels of microbial phytase. Journal of Animal Physiology Animal Nutrition, 88, 311-320. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0396.2004.00486.x
[20] Lim, S.J. and Lee, K.-J. (2009) Partial replacement of fishmeal by cottonseed meal and soybean meal with iron and phytase supplementation for parrot fish Oplegnathus fasciatus. Aquaculture, 290, 283-289. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.02.018
[21] Dias, J., Yúfera, M., Valente, L.M.P. and Rema, P. (2010) Diet transit and apparent protein, phosphorus and energy digestibility of practical diet ingredients by Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Aquaculture, 302, 94-99. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.02.013
[22] Williams, I., Williams, K.C., Smith, D.M. and Jones, M. (2006) Polka-dot grouper, Cromileptes altivelis, can utilize dietary fat efficiently. Aquaculture Nutrition, 12, 379-387. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2095.2006.00437.x
[23] Usman, Rachmansyah, Palingi, N.N. and Ahmad, T. (2007) Utilization of local feed ingredients in tiger grouper grow out moist diets. Aquaculture Asia Magazine, 33-36.
[24] Chen, W., Ai, Q., Mai, K., Xu, W., Liufu, Z., Zhang, W. and Cai, Y. (2011) Effects of dietary soybean saponins on diet intake, growth performance, digestibility and intestinal structure in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Aquaculture, 318, 95-100. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.04.050
[25] Storebakken, T., Kvien, I.S., Shearer, K.D., GrisdaleHelland, B., Helland, S.J. and Berge, G.M. (1998) The apparent digestibility of diets containing fishmeal, soybean meal or bacterial meal fed to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integratyive Physiology, 147, 25-36.
[26] Tibaldi, E., Hakim, Y., Uni, Z., Tulli, F., Francesco, M., Luzzana, U. and Harpaz, S. (2006) Effects of the partial substitution of dietary fish meal by differently processed soybean meals on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and activity of intestinal brush border enzymes in European seabass (Dicentrartchus labrax). Aquaculture, 261, 182-193. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.06.026
[27] Venou, B., Alexis, M.N., Fountoulaki, E. and Haralabous, J. (2006) Effects of extrusion and inclusion level of soybean meal on diet digestibility, performance and nutrient utilization of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture, 261, 343-356. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.07.030

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.