Assessment of Feedstock Options for Biofuels Production in Ghana

DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.32017   PDF   HTML     4,705 Downloads   7,211 Views   Citations

Abstract

In the wake of climate change and increasing fossil fuel prices, biofuels are becoming attractive to agricultural dependent economies in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions of the world. This study evaluates the energy production potential of biomass resources grown on the available arable agricultural land under two principal scenarios: using 2.5% and 5% of the available arable land for energy crop expansion. Using conservative biofuel yields from crops in the sub-region, a 2.5% of uncultivated arable land dedicated to four traditional crops grown in Ghana namely maize, cassava, sweet sorghum and oil palm could potentially replace 9.3% and 7.2% of transportation fuels by 2020 and 2030 respectively. Using 5% of the uncultivated arable land to cultivate the above four crops and jatropha could potentially produce biofuel to replace 17.3% of transport fuels by 2020 and 13.3% by 2030. In order to enrol such a scheme, government is encouraged to put in place appropriate structures to ensure that, the industry meet international sustainability standards.

Share and Cite:

Kemausuor, F. , Akowuah, J. and Ofori, E. (2013) Assessment of Feedstock Options for Biofuels Production in Ghana. Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, 3, 119-128. doi: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.32017.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] G. Maggio and G. G. Cacciola, “When Will Oil, Natural Gas, and Coal Peak?” Fuel, Vol. 98, 2012, pp. 111-123. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2012.03.021
[2] M. Aftabuzzaman and E. Mazloumi, “Achieving Sustainable Urban Transport Mobility in Post Peak Oil Era,” Transport Policy, Vol. 18, No. 5, 2011, pp. 695-702. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2011.01.004
[3] A. Zecca and L. Chiari, “Fossil-Fuel Constraints on Global Warming,” Energy Policy, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2010, pp. 1-3. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2009.06.068
[4] N. A. Owen, O. R. Inderwildi and D. A. King, “The Status of Conventional World Oil Reserves-Hype or Cause for Concern?” Energy Policy, Vol. 38, No. 8, 2010, pp. 4743-4749. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.02.026
[5] J. Singh and S. Gu, “Biomass Conversion to Energy in India—A Critique,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 14, 2010, pp. 1367-1378. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2010.01.013
[6] J. J. Cheng and G. R. Timilsina, “Status and Barriers of Advanced Biofuel Technologies: A Review,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 36, No. 12, 2011, pp. 3541-3549. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2011.04.031
[7] A. Demirbas, “Biofuels Securing the Planet’s Future Energy Needs,” Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 50, 2009, pp. 2239-2249. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2009.05.010
[8] Worldwatch Institute, “Biofuels Make a Comeback Despite Tough Economy,” Worldwatch Institute, 2011. http://www.worldwatch.org/biofuels-make-comeback-despite-tough-economy
[9] HART/GBC, “Global Biofuels Outlook 2009-2015,” Hart Energy Consulting/Hart’s Global Biofuels Center, Texas, 2009.
[10] C. Mandil and A. Shihab-Eldin, “Assessment of Biofuels Potential and Limitations,” A Report Commissioned by the International Energy Forum, 2010. http://www.ief.org/_resources/files/content/news/presentations/ief-report-biofuels-potentials-and-limitations-february-2010.pdf
[11] Energy Commission, “Draft Bioenergy Policy of Ghana,” Energy Commission, Accra, 2010.
[12] F. Kemausuor, G. Y. Obeng, A. Brew-Hammond and A. Duker, “A Review of Trends, Policies and Plans for Increasing Energy Access in Ghana,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 15, No. 9, 2011, pp. 5143-5154. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.041
[13] Africa Biofuel Network, “Biofuels—A Failure for Africa,” 2010. http://www.africanbiodiversity.org/sites/default/files/PDFs/Biofuels%20-%20A%20Failure%20for%20Africa%20(ABN,%20Dec%202010).pdf
[14] Ghana Statistical Service, “Population and Housing Census Summary of Final Results, 2012,” 2012. http://www.statsghana.gov.gh/docfiles/2010phc/2010_popution_and_housing_census (view_summary_of_final_results).pdf
[15] Food and Agricultural Organisation, “Ghana Overview, 2009.” http://faostat3.fao.org/home/index.html#VISUALIZE_BY_AREA
[16] Ministry of Food and Agriculture, “Agriculture in Ghana: Facts and Figures 2010,” Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Statistics, Research and Information Directorate (SRID), 2011.
[17] M. H. Duku, S. Gu and E. B. Hagan, “A Comprehensive Review of Biomass Resources and Biofuels Potential in Ghana,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2011, pp. 404-415. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2010.09.033
[18] Food and Agricultural Organisation, “Ghana Aquastat 2005.” http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/aquastat/pdf_files/GHA_tables.pdf
[19] S. Sielhorst, J. W. Molenaar and D. Offermans, “Biofuels in Africa: An Assessment of Risks and Benefits for African Wetlands,” Wetlands International, Wageningen, 2008.
[20] Food and Agricultural Organisation, “Crop production Ghana 2010.” http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/default.aspx
[21] K. M. Rahman, M. Mashud, M. Roknuzzaman and A. Al Galib, “Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engine,” International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2010, pp. 1-6.
[22] A. Milbrandt, “Assessment of Biomass. Resources in Liberia,” Prepared for the US Agency for International Development (USAID) under the Liberia Energy Assistance Program (LEAP), Technical Report NREL/TP-6A244808, 2009.
[23] Worldwatch Institute, “Biofuels for Transport: Global Potential and Implications for Energy and Agriculture,” Earthscan Publishing, 2007.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.