Biological Activity of Spartium junceum L. (Fabaceae) Aromatic Water


In this study, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Spartium junceum L. aromatic water (SJAW), obtained by vacuum process distillation, were investigated. Antimicrobial activity of SJAW was evaluated against fungal organisms, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using agar-well diffusion method. Moreover, the ability of SJAW to sensitize Staphyloccus aureus to antibiotics was also evaluated. The antioxidant activity was examined by 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity assay and the cytotoxic activity of SJAW main components was tested on melanoma RPMI 7932 and normal keratinocytes NCTC 2544 cell lines using the trypan blue method. The preparation did not show antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms and was unable, at tested concentrations/conditions, to sensitize Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics clindamycin (2 μg) and tetracycline (30 μg). On the contrary SJAW possesses an appreciable antioxidant and cytotoxic activity suggesting its potential use for pharmaceutical applications.

Share and Cite:

T. Cerchiara, G. Blaiotta, V. Straface, E. Belsito, A. Liguori, B. Luppi, F. Bigucci and G. Chidichimo, "Biological Activity of Spartium junceum L. (Fabaceae) Aromatic Water," Natural Resources, Vol. 4 No. 3, 2013, pp. 229-234. doi: 10.4236/nr.2013.43029.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. J. Gonzàlez and J. M. Marioli, “Antibacterial Activity of Water Extracts and Essential Oils of Various Aromatic Plants against Paenibacillus larvae, the Causative Agent of American Foulbrood,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Vol. 104, No. 3, 2010, pp. 209-213. doi:10.1016/j.jip.2010.04.005
[2] S. T. Chang, P. F. Chen and S. C. Chang, “Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Essential Oils and Their Constituents from Cinnamomum osmophloeum,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 77, No. 1, 2001, pp. 123-127. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00273-2
[3] O. A. Kumar, L. M. Naidu and K. G. R. Rao, “In Vitro Antibacterial Activity in the Extracts of Andrographis paniculata Burm. F.,” International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2010, pp. 1383-1385.
[4] E. Koksal, E. Bursal, E. Dikici, F. Tozoglu and I. Gulcin, “Antioxidant Activity of Melissa officinalis Leaves,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2011, pp. 217-222.
[5] T. Baytop, “Phytotherapy in Turkey, Past and Present,” Istanbul University Press, Istanbul, 1984.
[6] E. Yesilada, Y. Takaishi, T. Fujita and E. Sezik, “AntiUlcerogenic Effects of Spartium junceum Flowers on in Vivo Test Models in Rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2000, pp. 219-226. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00180-4
[7] E. Yesilada and Y. Takaishi, “A Saponin with AntiUlcerogenic Effect from the Flowers of Spartium junceum,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 51, No. 7, 1999, pp. 903-908. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00198-3
[8] L. Menghini, P. Massarelli, G. Bruni and R. Pagiotti, “Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Spartium junceum L. Flower Extracts: A Preliminary Study,” Journal of Medicinal Food, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2006, pp. 386-390. doi:10.1089/jmf.2006.9.386
[9] T. Cerchiara, S. V. Straface, G. Chidichimo, E. L. Belsito, A. Liguori, B. Luppi, F. Bigucci and V. Zecchi, “Spartium junceum Aromatic Water: Chemical Composition and antitumor Activity,” Natural Product Communications, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2012, pp. 137-140.
[10] A. Liguori, E. L. Belsito, A. Leggio and G. Chidichimo, “Essential oil and Aromatic Water Extraction Process from Vegetable Matrices,” European Patent No. 07020630, 5-2114, 2007.
[11] F. Villani, O. Pepe, G. Mauriello, G. Salzano, G. Moschetti and S. Coppola, “Antimicrobial Activity of Staphylococcus xylosus from Italian Sausage against Listeria monocytogenes,” Letters of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1994, pp. 159-161. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.1994.tb00833.x
[12] M. Simoes, S. Rocha, M. A. Coimbra and M. J. Vieira, “Enhancement of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus Antibiotic Susceptibility Using Sesquiterpenoids,” Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2008, pp. 616-623. doi:10.2174/157340608786242016
[13] G. Blaiotta, D. Ercolini, C. Pennacchia, V. Fusco, A. Casaburi, O. Pepe and F. Villani, “PCR Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Genes in Staphylococcus spp. Strains Isolated from Meat and Dairy Products. Evidence for New Variants of seG and seI in S. aureus AB-8802,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 97, No. 4, 2004, pp. 719-730. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02349.x
[14] W. Brand-Williams, M. E. Cuvelier and C. Berset, “Use of Free Radical Method to Evaluate Antioxidant Activity,” Lebensmittel-Eissenschaft und Technologie, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1995, pp. 25-30.
[15] E. L. Belsito, C. Carbone, M. L. Di Gioia, A. Leggio, A. Liguori, F. Perri, C. Siciliano and M. C. Viscomi, “Comparison of the Volatile Constituents in Cold-Pressed Bergamot Oil and a Volatile Oil Isolated by Vacuum Distillation,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 55, No. 19, 2007, pp. 7847-7851. doi:10.1021/jf070997q
[16] D. Trombetta, F. Castelli, M. G. Sarpietro, V. Venuti, M. Cristani, C. Daniele, A. Saija, G. Mazzanti and G. Bisignano, “Mechanisms of Antibacterial Action of Three Monoterpenes,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 49, No. 6, 2005, pp. 2472-2478. doi:10.1128/AAC.49.6.2474-2478.2005
[17] A. C. Vatopoulos, V. Kalapothaki and N. J. Legakis, “Bacterial Resistance to Ciprofloxacin in Greece: Results from the National Electronic Surveillance System,” Emerging Infectious Disease, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1999, pp. 471-476. doi:10.3201/eid0503.990325
[18] B. F. Brehm-Steche and E. A. Johnson, “Sensitization of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to Antibiotics by the Sesquiterpenoids Nerolidol, Farnesol, Bisabolol, and Apritone,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 47, No. 10, 2003, pp. 3357-3360. doi:10.1128/AAC.47.10.3357-3360.2003
[19] M. F. Ferreira, C. M. Palmeira, M. M. Oliveira, D. Santos, A. M. Simoes, S. M. Rocha, M. A. Coimba and F. Peixoto, “Nerolidol Effects on Mitochondrial and Cellular Energetics,” Toxicology in Vitro, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2012, pp. 189-196. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2011.11.009
[20] S. Pacifico, B. D’Abrosca, A. Golino, C. Mastellone, S. Piccolella, A. Fiorentino and P. Monaco, “Antioxidant Evaluation of Polyhydroxylated Nerolidols from Redroot Pigweed (Amarathus retroflexus) Leaves,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, Vol. 41, No. 9, 2008, pp. 1665-1671.
[21] P. Pripdeevech, W. Chumpolsri, P. Suttiarporn and S. Wongpornchai, “The Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Basil from Thailand Using Retention Indices and Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography,” Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, Vol. 75, No. 11, 2010, pp. 1503-1513. doi:10.2298/JSC100203125P
[22] M. R. Loizzo, R. Tundis, F. Menichini, A. M. Saab, G. A. Statti and F. Menichini, “Antiproliferative Effects of Essential Oils and Their Major Constituents in Human Renal Adenocarcinoma and Amelanotic Melanoma Cells”, Cell Proliferation, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2008, pp. 1002-1012. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2008.00561.x
[23] Y. Gu, Z. Ting, X. Qiu, X. Zhang, X. Gan, Y. Fang, X. Xu and R. Xu, “Linalool Preferentially Induces Robust Apoptosis of a Variety of Leukemia Cells via Upregulating p53and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors,” Toxicology, Vol. 268, No. 1-2, 2010, pp. 19-24. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2009.11.013

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.