DHW Design Flow Rates and Consumption Profiles in Educational, Office Buildings and Shopping Centres


The paper gives a thorough survey of the studies of different authors in the field of domestic hot water (DHW) consumption and consumption profiles. It presents an overview of the research done into DHW by the Tallinn University of Technology. Working out on the basis of investigations has been new empirical formulas for determining design flow rates for schools, kindergartens, office buildings and shopping centres. DHW consumption profiles of typical buildings are presented. Comparisons are given on the determination of DHW design flow rates by the standard EVS 835, the EN 806-3 and the recommended formulas. The latter makes it possible to considerably decrease the design flow rates which in turn enables to deminish the load of the equipment, to improve the quality of control and to decrease the diameters of the pipes of the district heating network and the losses of heat in them. 

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T. Koiv, A. Mikola and A. Toode, "DHW Design Flow Rates and Consumption Profiles in Educational, Office Buildings and Shopping Centres," Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, Vol. 4 No. 3, 2013, pp. 287-296. doi: 10.4236/sgre.2013.43035.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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