Impact of Population Structure, Growth Habit and Seedling Ecology on Regeneration of Embelia ribes Burm. f. —Approaches toward a Quasi in Situ Conservation Strategy


Embelia ribes Burm f., also known as Vidanga or Baibidanga, belonging to the family of Myrsinaceae, is an important but vulnerable medicinal woody climber. Recent survey and observations of E. ribes in different aspects like distribution, population structure, growth habit, climate, natural regeneration and seedling ecology in Karnataka have been thoroughly discussed. This is the first report on artificial regeneration through seeds of diverse origins in ex-situ and in situ conditions and field planting of them in its natural environment. Field planting of in vitro and nursery raised seedlings showed better field performance in terms of survival and growth in its natural growing areas only. Current studies and observations have shown that this species has low ecological gradient and is a “habitat specialist”. E. ribes being a threatened species with small populations coupled with low ecological gradient and virtually no natural regeneration, a modified approach of quasi in situ conservation where in in-situ raising of seedlings of diverse origin with an aim to enrich the diversity of existing population was attempted with considerable success.

Share and Cite:

D. Annapurna, A. Srivastava and T. Rathore, "Impact of Population Structure, Growth Habit and Seedling Ecology on Regeneration of Embelia ribes Burm. f. —Approaches toward a Quasi in Situ Conservation Strategy," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 6A, 2013, pp. 28-35. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.46A005.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] D. K. Ved, S. Archana, K. Ravikumar, “Verifying Vidanga,” Amruth, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2003, pp. 11-12, 20.
[2] Anon, “The Wealth of India—Raw Materials,” National Institute of Science Communication, CSIR, New Delhi, 2002, pp. 74-75.
[3] P. Hordegen, J. Cabaret, H. Hertzberg, W. Langhans and V. Maurer, “In Vitro Screening of Six Antihelmintic Plant Products against Larval Haemonchus contortus with a Modified Methyl-Thiazolyl-Tetrazolium Reduction Assay,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 108, No. 1, 2006, pp. 85-89. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.04.013
[4] R. B. Arora, N. Ghatak and S. P. Gupta, “Antifertility Effects of Embelia ribes,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, Vol. 6, 1971, pp. 107-111.
[5] A. O Prakash, “Antifertility Investigation on Embelin; An Oral Contraceptive of Plants Origin,” Part I: Biological properties, Planta Medica, Vol. 41, No. 3, 1981, pp. 259-266. doi:10.1055/s-2007-971712
[6] M. Chitra, C. S Devi and E. Sukumar, “Antibacterial Activity of Embelin,” Fitoterapia, Vol. 74, No. 4, 2003, pp. 401-403. doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(03)00066-2
[7] U. Bhandari, N. Jain, and K. K Pillai, “Further Studies on Antioxidant Potential and Protection of Pancreatic β Cells by Embelia ribes in Experimental Diabetes,” Experimental Diabetes Research, 2007, pp. 1-6, Article ID: 15803.
[8] S. S Handa, A. S. Chawla and A. K Sharma, “Plants with Anti-Inflammatory Activity,” Fitoterapia, Vol. 63, 1992, pp. 3-10.
[9] M. Chitra, C. S Devi and E. Sukumar, “Effect of Embelin on Carbohydrate Moieties of Glycoprotein in Tumor Bearing Rats,” Journal of Natural Remedies, Vol. 4, 2004, pp. 77-80.
[10] S. D. Seth, N. Johri and K. R. Sundaram, “Anti Spermatogenic Effect of Embelin from Embelia ribes,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 14, 1982, pp. 207-211.
[11] M. Sreepriya and G. Bali, “Chemopreventive Effects of Embelin and Curcumin against N-Nitrosoietylamine/Phenobarbitol Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar Rats,” Fitoterapia, Vol. 76, No. 6, 2005, pp. 549-555. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2005.04.014
[12] U. Bhandari, M. N. Ansari and F. Islam, “Cardioprotective Effect of Aqueous Explants of Embelia ribes Burm Fruits against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Albino Rats,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 46, 2008, pp. 35-40.
[13] U. Bhandari, M. N Ansari, F. Islam and C. D. Tripathi, “The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Embelia ribes Burm on Serum Homocysteine Lipids and Oxidative Enzymes in Methioninie Induced Hyperhomocysteinemia,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2008, pp. 152-157. doi:10.4103/0253-7613.43161
[14] Anon, National Medicinal Plant Board, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Press, 2008.
[15] N. Meyers, “Threatened Biotas: Hotspots in Tropical Forests,” The Environmentalist, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1988, pp. 1-20.
[16] B. Ramesh, J. P. Pascal and P. Franceschi, “Distribution of Endemic Arborescent Evergreen Species in the Western Ghats,” In: C. K. Karunakaran, Eds., Proceedings of the Rare, Endangered and Endemic Plants of Western Ghats, KFD, Wildlife Wing, Trivandrum, 1991, pp. 20-29.
[17] D. W. Goodall, “Statistical Plant Ecology,” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 1, 1970, pp. 99-124. doi:10.1146/
[18] K. Ravikumar and D. K Ved, “Hundred Red Listed Medicinal Plants of Conservation Concern in Southern India,” 1st Edition, Foundation for Revitalization of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT), Anugraha, Bangalore, 2000, pp. 136-138.
[19] Anon, “The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India,” Part I, Vol. II, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2001, pp. 123-124.
[20] A. V. Raghu, S. P. Geetha, C. Martin, I. Balachandran and P. Ravindran, “Direct Shoot Organogenesis from Leaf Explants of Embelia ribes Burm. F:A—Vulnerable Medicinal Plant,” Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2006, pp. 57-60. doi:10.1007/s10310-005-0188-1
[21] D. Annapurna and T. S. Rathore, “Direct Adventitious Shoot Induction and Plant Regeneration of Embelia ribes Burm. f,” Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Vol. 101, No. 3, 2010, pp. 269-277. doi:10.1007/s11240-010-9684-x
[22] D. Annapurna and T. S. Rathore, “Micropropagation of Embelia ribes Burm f. through Proliferation of Adult Plant Axillary Shoots,” In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology—Plant, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2010, pp. 180-191. doi:10.1007/s11627-010-9285-8
[23] K. J. Roller, “Suggested Minimum Standards for Containerized Seedlings in Nova Scotia,” Canadian Forestry Service, Department of the Environment Information Report, 1977, p. 69.
[24] G. Namkoong, T. J. B. Boyle, H. Gregorious, O. Joly, R. Savolainen, Wickeneswari and A. Young, “Testing Criteria and Indication for Assessing the Sustainability of Forest Management: Genetic Criteria and Indicators,” Working paper No. 10, Bogor, Indonesia Centre for Forestry Research, 1996.
[25] D. Prashant, R. Padmaja and D. S. Samiulla, “Effect of Certain Plant Extracts on α-Amylase Activity,” Fitoterapia, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2001, pp. 179-181. doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00281-1
[26] R. Frankham, J. D. Ballou and D. A. Briscoe, “Introduction to Conservation Genetics,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511808999
[27] S. C. Barrett and J. R. Kohn, “Genetic and Evolutionary Consequences Of Small Population Size in Plants: Implications for Conservation,” In: D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger, Eds., Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants, Oxford University Press, New York, 1991, pp. 3-30.
[28] N. C. Ellstrand and D. R. Elam, “Population Genetic Consequences of Small Population Size: Implications for Plant Conservation,” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 24, 1993, pp. 217-242. doi:10.1146/
[29] S. P. Hobbel and R. B. Foster, “Biology, Chance and History and the Structure of Tropical Rain Forest Tree Communities,” In: T. J. Case and J. Diamond, Eds., Community Ecology, Harper and Row, New York, 1986, pp. 314-329.
[30] M. Soulé and D. Simberloff, “What Do Genetics and Ecology Tell Us about the Design of Nature Reserves?” Biological Conservation, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1986, pp. 18-40. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(86)90025-X
[31] R. Aguilar, M. Quesada, L. Ashworth, Y. Herrerias-Diego and J. Lobo, “Genetic Consequences of Habitat Fragmentation in Plant Populations: Susceptible Signals in Plant Traits and Methodological Approaches,” Molecular Ecology, Vol. 17, No. 24, 2008, pp. 5177-5188. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03971.x
[32] S. Volis and M. Blecher, “Quasi in Situ: A Bridge between ex Situ and in Situ Conservation of Plants,” Biodiversity and Conservation, Vol. 19, No. 9, 2010, pp. 2441-2454. doi:10.1007/s10531-010-9849-2
[33] R. Uma Shaanker and K. N. Ganeshaiah, “Mapping Genetic Diversity of Phyllanthus emblica: Forest Gene Banks as a New Approach for in Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources,” Current Science, Vol. 73, No. 2, 1997, pp. 163-168.
[34] R. U. Shaanker, K. N. Ganeshaiah, M. N. Rao and G. Ravikanth, “A New Approach to Conservation of Genetic Resources of Forest Trees: Promise and Processes,” In: R. U. Shaanker, K. N. Ganeshaiah and K. S. Bawa, Eds., Forest Genetic Resources: Status, Threats and Conservation Strategies, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., Oxford, 2001, pp. 263-271.
[35] R. U. Shaanker, K. N Ganeshaiah, M. N. Rao and G. Ravikanth, “Forest Gene Banks—A New Approach to Conserving Forestry Genetic Resources,” In: J. M. M. Engels, A. H. D Brown and M. T. Jackson, Eds., Managing Plant Genetic Resources, CABI Publishing, Nosworthy, 2002, pp. 229-235.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.