Tuberculous Meningitis: Diagnostic and Radiological Features, Pathogenesis and Biomarkers


Central nervous system tuberculosis is the most severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis disease. We aim to review the diagnostic and radiological features, pathogenesis, and biomarkers of tuberculous meningitis. We also aim to look at the latest development of research of the disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous (TB) meningitis is difficult because the disease presents with unspecific clinical features. However, the disease has excellent clinical response to antituberculous therapy. Good prognosis depends on prompt diagnosis with treatment and radiological findings are very important. There is an increase in the levels of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) TNF-in TB meningitis patients. IL-6 level is also increased in patients with tuberculoma and exudates. There is an increase in the levels of serum and CSF TNF-α and IFN-γ in TB meningitis patients. There is also a rise in the levels of IL-8, IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-10, CSF matrix metalloproteinases, CSF tissue inhibitors of matrix Metalloproteinases, VEGF level, caspase-1 and IL-1β. Signal-regulatory protein alpha is overexpressed at mRNA level. High dose intravenous rifampicin (800 mg daily) is associated with reduced mortality in patients with advanced disease.

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M. Tai, "Tuberculous Meningitis: Diagnostic and Radiological Features, Pathogenesis and Biomarkers," Neuroscience and Medicine, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 101-107. doi: 10.4236/nm.2013.42016.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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