Camping and quality of life


Attaining health and quality of life is universal among global citizens. Since its introduction by Dr. Halbert Dunn in 1962 the term wellness was used to reflect qualify of life and has been widely accepted and defined in the Western culture. In adapting this concept to the Chinese community, the components of adaptation and homeostasis should be considered in addition to physical, mental, social and health fitness. Camping is a common activity among the Western Culture which provides purposive leisure, social, education and therapeutic activities. It allows campers to escape from city life and enjoy Nature. In the Chinese community, the challenges remain to promote and develop camping to an attractive activity in the pursuit of quality of life and wellness. The present study would report the effects of selective camping programs on campers, the lifestyle management practices of Hong Kong residents and a profile of Hong Kong campers. The study was limited with data obtained from surveying 975 Hong Kong secondary school children from 11 - 18 years old using a questionnaire developed earlier [1]. Also, the case study on the effects of camping on anxiety was based on data collected from 130 campers who went to a 3-day camp.

Share and Cite:

Fu, F. , Guo, L. and Zang, Y. (2013) Camping and quality of life. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3, 263-274. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.33036.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Fu, F.H., An, N. and Li. G.Z. (2011) Lifestyle management practices of Hong Kong people. Hong Kong Baptist University.
[2] Walker, J. and Bradley, C. (2002) Assessing the quality of life of adolescents with diabetes: Using the SEIQoL, DQoL, patient and diabetes specialist nurse ratings. Practical Diabetes International, 19, 141-144. doi:10.1002/pdi.348
[3] Cheung, R., Young, Cureton, V. and Canham, D.L. (2006) Quality of life in adolescents with type 1 diabetes who participate in diabetes camp. The Journal of School Nursing, 22, 53-58. doi:10.1177/10598405060220010901
[4] Wang, Y.C., Stewart, S., Tuli, E. and White, P. (2008) Improved glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus who attend diabetes camp. Pediatric Diabetes, 9, 29-34. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5448.2007.00285.x
[5] Iglesias, M.A., Díaz Jara, M., Zapatero Remón, L. and Martínez Molero, M.I. (2003) Asthma camp. Quality of life questionnaires. Allergologia et Immunopathologia (Madrid), 31, 231-235.
[6] Shepanski, M.A., Hurd, L.B., Culton, K., Markowitz, J.E., Mamula, P. and Baldassano, R.N. (2005) Health-related quality of life improves in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease after attending a camp sponsored by the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America. Inflammatory Bowel Disease, 11, 164-170. doi:10.1097/00054725-200502000-00010
[7] O’Mahar, K., Holmbeck, G.N., Jandasek, B. and Zukerman, J. (2010) A camp-based intervention targeting independence among individuals with spinal bifida. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35, 848-856. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsp125
[8] Gately, P.J., Cooke, C.B., Barth, J.H., Bewick, B.M., Radley, D. and Hill A.J. (2005) Children’s residential weightloss programs can work: A prospective cohort study of short-term outcomes for overweight and obese children. Pediatrics, 116, 73-77. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-0397
[9] Courey, T.J. (2006) Mental health needs of children and adolescents at camp: Are they being assessed and treated appropriately by the camp nurse? Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 19, 215-223. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6171.2006.00074.x
[10] Moons, P., Barrea, C., Suys, B., Ovaert, C., Boshoff, D., Eyskens, B., Vandenrijin, C. and Sluysmans, T. (2006) Improved perceived health status persists three months after a special sports camp for child with congenital heart disease. European Journal of Pediatrics, 165, 767-772. doi:10.1007/s00431-006-0171-7
[11] Wong, W.W., Abrams, S.H., Mikhail, C., Terrazas, N.L., Wilson, T.A., Arceo, D., et al. (2009) An innovative summer camp program improves weight and self-esteem in obese children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 49, 493-497. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e31819b5da2
[12] Gaslin, R.N. and Snoddy, J. (2009) Imporving quality of life for campers with severe food allergy.
[13] Holsey, C.N. and Cummings, L. (2008) Evaluating a residential asthma camp program and ways to increase physical activity. Pediatric Nursing, 34, 459-461, 492.
[14] Shelton, K., Duerden, M.D. and Witt, P.A. (2010) Therapeutic camps as respite care providers: Benefits for families of children with disabilities. Camping Magzine, 8, 10.
[15] Briery, B.G. (2004) Family camping: Building a community at warp speed the special case of family camping. Camping Magazine, July/August.
[16] Taylor S., Covey J.F. and Covey C.D. (2006) Family camps: Strengthening family relationships at camp and at home. Camping Magazine, July/August.
[17] Zotti, M.E., Graham, J., Whitt, A.L., Anand, S. and Replogle, W.H. (2006) Evaluation of a multistate faith-based program for children affected by natural disaster. Public Health Nursing, 23, 400-409. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1446.2006.00579.x
[18] Schachter, S.R. (2007) Bereavement summer camp for children and teens: A reflection of nine years. Palliat Support Care, 5, 315-323. doi:10.1017/S1478951507000478
[19] Wallace, S. (2006) Rites of passage: Camp pays off in youth development, happiness, health, and safety. Camping Magazine, May/June.
[20] Simons, L.E., Blount, R.L., Campbell, R., Hubbard, A., Goodwin, B., Devine, K. and Benoit, M. (2007) Decreases in anxiety associated with participation in a camp for children with cardiac defects. Cardiology in the Young, 17, 631-637. doi:10.1017/S1047951107001485
[21] Agate, S.T. and Covey, C.D. (2007) Family camps: An overview of benefits and issues of camps and programs for families. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 16, 921-937. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2007.05.007
[22] Gibbs, A., Moor, S., Frampton, C. and Watkins, W. (2008) Impact of psychosocial interventions on children with disruptive and emotional disorders treated in a health camp. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 789-799. doi:10.1080/00048670802277248
[23] Burch, W.R. (2009) The social circles of leisure: Competing explanations. Journal of Leisure Research, 41, 313-335.
[24] Cupers, K. (2008) Governing through nature: Camps and youth movements in interwar Germany and the United States. Cultural Geographies, 15,173-205. doi:10.1177/1474474007087498
[25] Kiernan, G., Guerin, S. and Maclachlan, M. (2005) Children’s voices: Qualitative data from the “Barretstown studies”. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 42, 733741. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2003.05.003
[26] Turton, S.M. (2005) Managing environmental impacts of recreation and tourism in rainforests of the wet tropics of Queensland World Heritage area. Geographical Research, 43, 140-151. doi:10.1111/j.1745-5871.2005.00309.x
[27] Garst, B.A., Williams, D.R. and Roggenbuck, J.W. (2010) Exploring early twenty-first century developed forest camping experiences and meanings. Leisure Sciences, 32, 9097. doi:10.1080/01490400903430905
[28] Corbin, C.B. and Pangrazi, R.P. (2001) Toward a uniform definition of wellness: A commentary. Research Digest, 3, 1-8.
[29] Ren, H., Xing, W.H. and Fu, F. (2007) The concept of wellness from the perspective of Chinese culture. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 5, 95-101.
[30] Kang, K., Sung and Kim, C.Y. (2010) High risk groups in health behavior defined by clustering of smoking, alcohol, and exercise habits. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 5, 39-47.
[31] Kosti, R.L., Pagagiotakos, D.B., Mariolis, A., et al. (2009) The diet-lifestyle index evaluating the quality of eating and lifestyle behaviors in relation to the prevalence of over-weight/obesity in adolescents. International Journal of Food Science & Nutrition supplement, 13, 34-48. doi:10.1080/09637480802534525
[32] Nowak, M., Rynkiewicz, T., Radzinska, M., et al. (2009) Conditions of a sporting lifestyle in 20-75-year-old polish women. International Scientific Journal of Kinesiology, 3, 19-26.
[33] Engstrom, L.M. (2008) Who is physical active? Cultural capacity and sports participation from adolescence to middle age—A 38-year follow-up study. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 13, 319-334. doi:10.1080/17408980802400510
[34] Khaw, K.T., Wareham, N., Bingham, S., et al. (2008) Combined impact of health behaviors and mortality in men and women: The EPIC-norfolk prospective population study. PLoS Medicine, 5, 39-47. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050012
[35] Mitchell, J.A., Bornstein, D.B., Siu, X.M., et al. (2010) The impact of combined health factors on cardiovascular disease mortality. American Heart Journal, 160, 102-108. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2010.05.001
[36] Ma, J., Betts, N.M. and Hampl, J.S. (2000) Clustering of lifestyle behaviors: The relationship between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary intake. American Journal of Health Promotion, 15, 107-117. doi:10.4278/0890-1171-15.2.107
[37] Fu, F.H. and Fung, L. (2004) The cardiovascular health of residents in selected metropolitan cities in China. Preventive Medicine, 38, 458-467. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.11.022
[38] Chou, K.L.(2008) The prevalence and clustering of four major lifestyle risk factors in Hong Kong Chinese older adults. Journal of Aging and Health, 20, 788-803. doi:10.1177/0898264308321082
[39] Ko, G.T., Chan, J.C., Chan, A.W., et al. (2007) Association between sleeping hours, working hours and obesity in Hong Kong Chinese: The better health for better Hong Kong’s health promotion campaign. International Journal of Obesity (London), 31, 254-260. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803389
[40] Center for Health Protection, Department of Health, HKSAR (2008) Statistics on behavioral risk factors.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.