High Risk Behavior, Knowledge and Attitude of HIV/AIDS among Workers in Factories Manufacturing Alcohol in Mandalay, Myanmar

DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.32019   PDF   HTML     4,002 Downloads   6,201 Views   Citations


Analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in Mandalay, Myanmar to identify high risk sexual behavior, knowledge and attitude regarding HIV/AIDS and prevention practice related to HIV/AIDS among male workers in factories manufacturing alcohol. Participants included male workers (n = 219) from 10 alcohol factories in Industrial Zone (A). Data were collected through face to face interviews using pretested structured questionnaire. Results showed that 38.8% of the respondents were able to get discount to buy alcohol from their factory, and 70.3% of them consumed alcohol in the last 12 months. Regarding high risk sexual behavior, 38.4% of the respondents had intercourse with a casual partner of opposite gender, while 31.5% had intercourse with commercial sex workers and 19.2% had homosexual relationship during last 12 months. Among the married, 45% had extramarital intercourse. More than 80% of the respondents received HIV/AIDS related information from media and colleagues while 51.1% of them received from NGOs or health education at workplace. Among the respondents who engaged in different high risk sexual behaviors, 50% - 88.9% did not use condom consistently and they had significantly lower knowledge about HIV/AIDS. However, the knowledge and attitude regarding HIV/AIDS were not significantly different between the respondents who used condom consistently and those who did not. This study highlights the need of health education about HIV/AIDS and access to affordable condoms among workers in factories manufacturing alcohol to improve their knowledge, attitude and behavior, as well as to promote consistent condom usage as it is vital for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS.

Share and Cite:

K. Maung, H. Soe, N. Than, S. Madan and S. P., "High Risk Behavior, Knowledge and Attitude of HIV/AIDS among Workers in Factories Manufacturing Alcohol in Mandalay, Myanmar," World Journal of AIDS, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 147-153. doi: 10.4236/wja.2013.32019.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] World Health Organization (WHO), “HIV/AIDS Fact sheet,” 2012. http://www.who.int/media centre/factsheets/fs360/ en/index.html
[2] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Basic information about HIV and AIDS,” 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/basic/index.htm
[3] Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), “Global HIV/AIDS Response: Epidemic Update and Health Sector Progress towards Universal Access, Progress Report 2011,” 2011. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241502986_eng.pdf
[4] Ministry of Health Myanmar, “National Strategic Plan on HIV and AIDS 2011-2015,” 2011. http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/center-for-public-health-and-human-rights/_pdf/NSP%20Full%20Book%20Final.pdf
[5] Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), “HIV and AIDS Estimates (2011),” 2012. http://www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/myanmar/
[6] World Health Organization (WHO) & Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), “AIDS Epidemic Update: Special Report on HIV/AIDS: December 2006,” 2006. http://data.unaids.org/ pub/epireport/2006/2006_ epiupdate_en.pdf
[7] Environment and Social Development Department, International Finance Corporation, World Bank Group, “Good Practice Note: HIV/AIDS in the workplace,” Good Practice Note, 2002. http://www1.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/6eaa6500488555c1b7f4f76a6515bb18/HIVAIDSEng.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
[8] World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) & United Nations Children Funds (UNICEF), “Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV and AIDS. Core Data on Epidemiology and Response, Myanmar: 2008 Update,” 2009. http://www.who.int/ hiv/pub/epidemiology/ pubfacts/en/
[9] HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia-Pacific, “Vulnerability and HIV Knowledge, Myanmar,” 2011. http://www.slideboom.com/presentations/316684/Myanmar%E2%80%AA-%282011%29%3A-%E2%80%ACVulnerability-and-HIV-Knowledge
[10] Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), “Position Statement on Condoms and HIV Prevention,” 2004. http://data.unaids.org/ pub/BaseDocument/2009/ 20090318_position_paper_ condoms_en.pdf
[11] Wikipedia, “Mandalay: Demographic,” 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandalay#cite_note-un-3
[12] Y. Taro, “Statistics, an Introductory Analysis,” 2nd Edition, Harper and Row, New York, 1967.
[13] International Labor Organization (ILO), “Labour and Social Trend in Asia and the Pacific 2006: Progress towards Decent Work,” 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/ english/region/asro/bangkok/ 14arm/download/labour.pdf
[14] R. M. Malow, J. G. Devieux, T. Jennings, B. A. Lucenko and S. C. Kalichman, “Substance Abusing Adolescent at Varying Level of HIV Risk: Psychosocial Characteristics, Drug Use and Sxual Behavior,” Journal of Substance Abuse, Vol. 13, No. 1-2, 2001, pp. 103-117. doi:10.1016/S0899-3289(01)00069-4
[15] R. Khampang, J. Yothasamut, C. Putchong, S. Pilasant, S. Teeraananchai, S. Tantivess and Y. Teerawattananon, “The Drinking Behavior or Residents of a Village in an Industrial Park Area: The Current Situation and Reasons Behind This Behavior,” 2012. http://www.valueinhealth journal.com/article/S1098- 3015%2811%2973273-9/abstract
[16] E. Buregyeya, W. Bazeyo, B. E. Moen, C. Michelo and K. Fylkesnes, “HIV Risk Behavior and Work in Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study,” East African Journal of Public Health, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2008, pp. 43-48. doi:10.4314/eajph.v5i1.38976
[17] C. Therese, H. H. Pune and K. Archavantikul, “Sexuality, Reproductive Health and Violence: Experiences of Migrants from Burma in Thailand,” Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 2009. http://whothailand.healthrepository.org/handle/123456789/1116
[18] P. Mu, “Factors Affecting Sage Sex Behavior towards HIV/AIDS among Myanmar Reproductive Age Migrants in Muan District, Samutsakhon Province, Thailand,” Master Dissertation, Assumption University, Bangkok, 2006.
[19] M. Thu, “Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Prevention of HIV/AIDS TRANSMISSION in Myanmar migrant Factory Workers in Mhachai District, Samutsakorn Province, Thailand,” Master Dissertation, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 2003.
[20] R. Machekano, M. Mbizvo, D. Katzenstein, M. Bassett, P. Zhou and A. Latif, “HIV Seroincidence and Correlates of Seroconversion in a Cohort of Male Factory Workers in Harare, Zimbabwe,” AIDS, Vol. 10, 1996, pp. 895-901. doi:10.1097/00002030-199607000-00013
[21] K. K. Holmes, R. Levine and M. Weaver, “Effectiveness of Condoms in Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 62, No. 6, 2004, pp. 454-461.
[22] F. S. Vaz, A. M. Ferreira, M. S. Kulkami and D. D. Motghare, “Sexual Behaviors and HIV/AIDS among Males in a Rural Community in Goa,” Journal of Communicable Diseases, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2006, pp. 74-78.
[23] J. P. Hargreaves, C. P. Bonell, L. Morison, J. C. Kim, G. Phetla and J. D. Porter, “Explaining Continues High HIV Prevalence in South Africa: Socioeconomic Factors, HIV Incidence and Sexual Behaviors Change among a Rural Cohort, 2001-2004,” AIDS, Vol. 21, Suppl. 7, 2007, pp. S39-S48. doi:10.1097/01.aids.0000300534.97601.d6
[24] S. Liu, K. Wang, S. Yao, X. Guo, Y. Liu and B. Wang, “Knowledge and Risk Behaviors Related to HIV/AIDS and Their Association with Information Resource among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Heilongjang Province, China,” BMC Public Health, Vol. 10, 2012, p. 250. www.biomedcentral.com/ 1471-2458/10/250 doi:10.1186/1471- 2458-10-250
[25] P. S. Win, “Prevalence and Determinants of Access to, Perceptions on, and Preferences for, HIV-Related Health Education among Myanmar Migrant Workers in Ranong, Thailand,” Master Dissertation, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 2007.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.