Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV/HCV Co-Infection Italian Consensus Workshop


About 50% of people living with the HIV infection in Italy are co-infected with HCV. In this group of patients, the primary cause of mortality is liver disease, which accounts for up to 14% of deaths. HIV/HCV co-infection also exposes patients to a higher risk of progression to AIDS, a faster evolution towards cirrhosis, more frequent drug toxicity, and lower tolerance for antiretroviral therapy. Moreover, HCV infection can play a part in increasing immune system depression; neurological, cognitive and renal damage; and bone fragility. Hence an optimal antiretroviral regimen needs to be chosen for co-administration with anti-HCV therapy and timed appropriately to improve the prognosis of co-infected HIV/HCV patients. Unfortunately, however, data on the safety and efficacy of antiretroviral drugs in these patients is scarce, as are studies of pharmacokinetics in patients with advanced liver impairment. Furthermore, restoring adequate immune constitution seems not to slow the progression of liver disease, and the metabolic and hepatic toxicity of some antiretroviral drugs can even contribute to inflammatory and fibrogenic processes. It is therefore essential that HIV/HCV co-infected patients receive only medications capable of ensuring the best immune recovery but possessing the lowest potential to trigger immune reconstitution syndrome or hepatic and metabolic damage.

Share and Cite:

P. Nasta, A. Cattelan, I. Maida, F. Gatti, E. Chiari, M. Puoti and G. Carosi, "Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV/HCV Co-Infection Italian Consensus Workshop," Advances in Infectious Diseases, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 105-114. doi: 10.4236/aid.2013.32017.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. A. Pineda, M. R. Gomez, F. D. Garcia, et al., “HIV Coinfection Shortens the Survival of Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Related Decompensated Cirrhosis,” Hepatology, Vol. 41, No. 4, 2005, pp. 779-789. doi:10.1002/hep.20626
[2] M. Puoti, R. Rossotti, A. Garlaschelli and R. Bruno, “Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HIV Hepatitis C Virus,” Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2011, pp. 534-538. doi:10.1097/COH.0b013e32834bd2b7
[3] E. Strauss, “Usefulness of Liver Biopsy in Chronic Hepatitis C,” Annals of Hepatology, Vol. 9, 2010, pp. 39-42.
[4] P. Calès, P. Halfon, D. Batisse, et al., “Comparison of Liver Fibrosis Blood Tests Developed for HCV with New Specific Tests in HIV/HCV Co-Infection,” Journal of Hepatology, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2010, pp. 238-244.
[5] M. Sánchez-Conde, M. L. Montes-Ramírez, P. Miralles, et al., “Comparison of Transient Elastography and Liver Biopsy for the Assessment of Liver Fibrosis in HIV/ Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients and Correlation with Noninvasive Serum Markers,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2010, pp. 280-286. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01180.x
[6] E. Garlassi, P. Ventura, P. Beretta, et al., “Hepato Cellular Carcinoma in HIV-Infected Patients: Check Early, Treat Hard,” Infection, Vol. 38, Suppl. 1, 2010, pp. 82-182.
[7] K. Prestini, L. Biasi, M. Mendeni, et al., “Incidence and Predictors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) in Cirrhotics Living with HIV (Abstract),” 5th International HIV and Hepatitis Workshop, Lisbon, 4-6 June 2009.
[8] N. Qurishi, C. Kreuzberg, G. Luchters, et al., “Effect of Antiretroviral Therapy on Liver Related Mortality in Patients with HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection,” Lancet, Vol. 362, No. 9397, 2003, pp. 1708-1713. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14844-1
[9] J. A. Pineda, J. A. García-García, M. Aguilar-Guisado, et al., “Clinical Progression of Hepatitis C Virus-Related Chronic Liver Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients Undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy,” Hepatology, Vol. 46, No. 3, 2007, pp. 622-630.
[10] M. Lopez-Dieguez, M. L. Montes, J. F. Pascual Pereja, et al., “The Natural History of Liver Cirrhosis in HIV-Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients,” AIDS, Vol. 25, No. 7, 2011, pp. 899-904. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283454174
[11] M. Saves, S. Vandentorren, V. Daucourt, et al., “Severe Hepatic Cytolysis: Incidence and Risk Factors in Patients Treated by Antiretroviral Combinations. Aquitaine Cohort, France, 1996-1998,” AIDS, Vol. 13, No. 17, 1999, pp. F115-F121. doi:10.1097/00002030-199912030-00002
[12] M. V. Ragni, B. Eghttesad, K. W. Schlesinger, et al., “Pretransplant Survival Is Shorter in HIV-Positive than HIV-Negative Subjects with End-Stage Liver Disease,” Liver Transplant, Vol. 11, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1425-1430. doi:10.1002/lt.20534
[13] Y. Sugawara, S. Tamura and N. Kokudo, “Liver Transplantation in HCV/HIV Positive Patients,” World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2011, pp. 21-28. doi:10.4240/wjgs.v3.i2.21
[14] M. V. Ragni, S. H. Belle, K. Im, et al., “Survival of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Liver Transplant Recipients,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 188, No. 10, 2003, pp. 1412-1420. doi:10.1086/379254
[15] G. W. Neff, A. Bonham, A. G. Tzakis, et al., “Orthtopic Liver Transplantation in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and End-Stage Liver Disease,” Liver Transplant, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2003, pp. 239-247. doi:10.1053/jlts.2003.50054
[16] M. E. de Vera, I. Dvorchik, K. Tom, et al., “Survival of Liver Transplant Patients Coinfected with HIV and HCV Is Adversely Impacted by Recurrent Hepatitis C,” American Journal of Transplantation, Vol. 6, No. 12, 2006, pp. 2983-2993. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2006.01546.x
[17] I. Schreibman, J. J. Gaynor, D. Jayaweera, et al., “Outcomes after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation in 15 HIV-Infected Patients,” Transplantation, Vol. 84, No. 6, 2007, pp. 697-705. doi:10.1097/
[18] J. Miro, M. Montejo, L. Castells, et al., “Prognostic Factors of Mortality in HCV/HIV Coinfected Liver Transplant Recipients from the FIPSE OLT-HIV-05-GESIDA 45-05 Cohort Study (2002-2006),” 15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic, Boston, 3-6 February 2008, p. 177.
[19] A. L. Mindikoglu, A. Regev and L. S. Magder, “Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Survival after Liver Transplantation: Analysis of United Network for Organ Sharing Database,” Transplantation, Vol. 85, No. 3, 2008, pp. 359-368. doi:10.1097/TP.0b013e3181605fda
[20] J. C. Duclos-Vallee, C. Feray, M. Sebagh, et al., “Survival and Recurrence of Hepatitis C after Liver Transplantation in Patients Coinfected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus,” Hepatology, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2008, pp. 407-417. doi:10.1002/hep.21990
[21] K. Marfo and S. Greenstein, “Antiretroviral and Immunosuppressive Drug-Drug Interactions in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Liver and Kidney Transplant Recipients,” Transplantation Proceedings, Vol. 41, No. 9, 2009, pp. 3796-3799. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2009.06.186
[22] V. Soriano, M. Puoti, P. Garcia-Gascó, J. K. Rockstroh, Y. Benhamou, P. Barreiro and B. McGovern, “Antiretroviral Drugs and Liver Injury,” AIDS, Vol., 22, No. 1, 2008, pp. 1-13. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f0e2fd
[23] I. Maida, S. Babudieri, C. Selva, et al., “Liver Enzyme Elevation in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-HIV-Coinfected Patients Prior and after Initiation of CART: Role of HCV Genotypes,” AAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2006, pp. 139-143. doi:10.1089/aid.2006.22.139
[24] M. John, J. Flexman and M. A. H. French, “Hepatitis C Virus-Associated Hepatitis Following Treatment of HIV-Infected Patients with HIV Protease Inhibitors: An ‘Immune Restoration Disease’?” AIDS, Vol. 12, No. 17, 1998, pp. 2289-2293. doi:10.1097/00002030-199817000-00010
[25] M. A. French, N. Lenzo, M. John, et al., “Immune Restoration Disease after the Treatment of Immunodeficient HIV-Infected Patients with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy,” HIV Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2001, pp. 107-115.
[26] I. Ofotokun, S. E. Smithson, C. Lu, et al., “Liver Enzyme Elevation and Immune Reconstitution among Treatment Naive HIV-Infected Patients Instituting Antiretroviral Therapy,” The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Vol. 334, No. 5, 2007, pp. 334-341. doi:10.1097/MAJ.0b013e31811ec780
[27] S. F. Stone, S. Lee, N. M. Keane, et al., “Association of Increased Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Specific IgG and Soluble CD26 Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Enzyme Activity with Hepatotoxicity after Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-HCV-Coinfected Patients,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 186, No. No. 10, 2002, pp. 1498-1502.
[28] G. Moyle, “Mechanism of HIV and Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Injury to Mitochondria,” Antiviral Therapy, Vol. 10, Suppl. 2, 2005, pp. M47-M52.
[29] A. Igoudjil, A. Abbey-Toby, K. Begriche, et al., “High Doses of Stavudine Induce Fat Wasting and Mild Liver Damage without Impairing Mitochon Drial Respiration in Mice,” Antiviral Therapy, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2007, pp. 389-400.
[30] P. Braitstein, A. Palepu, D. Dietrich, et al., “Special Considerations in the Initiation and Management of Antiretroviral Therapy in Individuals Coinfected with HIV and Hepatitis C,” AIDS, Vol. 18, No. 17, 2004, pp. 2221-2234. doi:10.1097/00002030-200411190-00002
[31] Z. S. Lamar and M. Nunez, “Higher Risk of Severe Drug-Induced Liver Injury among Hispanic HIV-Infected Patients after Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy,” journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (JIAPAC), Vol. 10, No. 3, 2011, pp. 183-186. doi:10.1177/1545109711401411
[32] L. Martin-CarboneroL, M. Nunez, J. Gonzalez-Lahoz and V. Soriano, “Incidence of Liver Injury after Beginning Antiretroviral Therapy with Efavirenz or Nevirapine,” HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2003, pp. 115-120. doi:10.1310/N4VT-3E9U-4BKN-CRPW
[33] F. Vanleth, P. Phanuphak, K. Ruxrungtham, et al., “Comparison of first-Line Antiretroviral Therapy with Regimens including Nevirapine, Efavirenz, or Both Drugs plus Stavudine and Lamivudine: A Randomized Open-Label Trial, the 2NN Study,” Lancet, Vol. 363, No. 9417, 2004, pp. 1253-1263. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)15997-7
[34] B. Clotet, N. Clumeck, C. Katlama, et al., “Safety of Etravirine in HIV-1/Hepatitis B and/or C Virus Co-Infected patients: Pooled 96 Week Results from the Phase III DUET Trials,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 65, No. 11, 2010, pp. 2450-2454. doi:10.1093/jac/dkq332
[35] M. Sulkowski, S. Mehta, R. Chaisson, et al., “Hepatotoxicity Associated with Protease Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Regimens with or without Concurrent Ritonavir,” AIDS, Vol. 18, No. 17, 2004, pp. 2277-2284. doi:10.1097/00002030-200411190-00008
[36] J. C. Gathe Jr, G. Pierone, P. Piliero, et al., “Efficacy and Safety of Three Doses of Tipranavir Boosted with Ritonavir in Treatment-Experienced HIV Type-1 Infected Patients,” AIDS Research Human Retroviruses, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2007, pp. 216-223. doi:10.1089/aid.2006.0178
[37] K. McKeage, C. M. Perry, S. J. Keam, et al., “Darunavir: A Review of Its Use in the Management of HIV Infection in Adults,” Drugs, Vol. 69, No. 4, 2009, pp. 477-503. doi:10.2165/00003495-200969040-00007
[38] V. Sekar, S Spinosa-Guzman, E. De Paepe, et al., “Pharmacokinetics of Multiple-Dose Darunavir in Combination with Low-Dose Ritonavir in Individuals with Mild-to-Moderate Hepatic Impairment,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Vol. 49, No. 5, 2010, pp. 343-350. doi:10.2165/11530690-000000000-00000
[39] A. Rachilis, Clotet B, J. Baxter, et al., “Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of Darunavir (TMC114) with Low-Dose Ritonavir in Treatment-Experienced, Hepatitis B or C Co-Infected Patients in POWER 1 and 3,” HIV Clinical Trials, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2007, pp. 213-220. doi:10.1310/hct0804-213
[40] M. Regazzi, P. Villani, R. Gulminetti, et al., “Therapeutic Monitoring and Variability of Atazanavir in HIV-Infected Patients, with and without HCV Coinfection, Receiving Boosted or Unboosted Regimens,” Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2011, pp. 303-308.
[41] F. Gatti, P. Nasta, A. Loregian, et al., “Unboosted Fosamprenavir Is Associated with Low Drug Exposure in HIV-1 Infected Patients with Mild Moderate Liver Impairment Resulting from HCV Related Cirrhosis,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 63, No. 3, 2009, pp. 575-578. doi:10.1093/jac/dkn525
[42] P. Nasta, F. Gatti, F. Borghi, et al., “Raltegravir He patic Tolerability in Patients with or without HIV/HCV Co-Infection,” Fifth Workshop on HIV and Hepatitis Co-Infection, 19-21 June, 2009, Lisbon, Abs. 38.
[43] J. Macias, K. Neukam, J. Poetilla and J. A. Jribarren (de Los Santos and al for HEPRAL Study Team), “Liver Tolerance of Raltegravir-Containing Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 66, No. 6, 2011, pp. 1346-1350.doi:10.1093/jac/dkr083
[44] M. Genebat, E. Ruiz-Mateos, I. Pulido, A. Gonzalez-Serma, A. Garcia-Perganeda, et al., “Long-term Immunovirogical Effect and Tolerability of a Maraviroc-Containing Regimen in Routine Clinical Practice,” Currrent HIV Research, Vol. 8, No. 6, 2010, pp. 482-486.
[45] S. Abel, J. D. Davis, C. E. Ridgway, et al., “Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of a Single Oral Dose of Maraviroc in HIV-Negative Subjects with Mild and Moderate Hepatic Impairment,” Antiviral Therapy, Vol. 14, 2009, pp. 831-837. doi:10.3851/IMP1297
[46] P. Nasta, “Immune Activation, Aging and Gender and Progression of Liver Disease,” Acta Bio-Medica, Vol. 82, No. 2, 2011, pp. 115-123.
[47] F. Bani-Sadr, F. Carrat, P. Bedossa, et al., “Hepatic Steatosis in HIV-HCV Coinfected Patients: Analysis of Risk Factors,” AIDS, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2006, pp. 525-531. doi:10.1097/01.aids.0000210606.63138.f5
[48] B. H. McGovern, “Hepatic Steatosis in HV/HCV-Coinfected Patients: Time to Reevaluate! Gastroenteroogy, Vol. 140, No. 3, 2011, pp. 809-817. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.01.025
[49] P. Halfon, G. Penaranda, F. Carrat, et al., “Influence of Insulin Resistance on Hepatic Fibrosis and Steatosis in HCV Monoinfected Compared with HIV-HCV Co-Infected Patients,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2009, pp. 61-70. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2009.03995.x
[50] M. A. Loko, et al., “Impact of CART Exposure and Associated Lipodystrophy on Advanced Liver Fibrosis in HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, Vol. 18, 2010, pp. 307-314.
[51] P. Pérez-Matute, L. Pérez-Martínez, J. R. Blanco and J. A. Oteo, “Neutral Actions of Raltegravir on Adipogenesis, Glucose Metabolism and Lipolysis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes,” Current HIV Research, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2011, pp. 74-79. doi:10.2174/157016211795945278
[52] M. J. Fisher, C. M. Wyat, K. Gordon, et al., “Hepatitis C and the Risk of Kidney Disease and Mortality in Veterand with HIV,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2010, pp. 222-226. doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b980d4
[53] H. Izzedine, D. Sene, P. Cacoub, et al., “Kidney Diseases in HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients,” AIDS, Vol. 23, No. 10, 2009, pp. 1219-1226. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832ac36a
[54] F. Collin, X. Duval, V. Le Moing, et al., “Ten Year Incidence and Risk Factor of Bone Fractures in a Cohort of Treated HIV-1 Infected Adults,” AIDS, Vol. 23, No. 8, 2009, pp. 1021-1024. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283292195
[55] C. H. Hinkin, S. A. Castellon, A. J. Levin, et al., “Neurocognition in Individuals Coinfected with HIV and Hepatitis C,” Journal of Addictive Diseases, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2008, pp. 11-17. doi:10.1300/J069v27n02_02
[56] H. A. Aronow, A. J. Weston, B. B. Pezeshki and T. S. Lazzarus, “Effects of Coinfection with HIV and Hepatitis C Virus on the Nervous System,” The AIDS Reader, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2008, pp. 43-48.
[57] P. Ancuta, A. Karnat, K. J. Kunstman, et al., “Microbial Translocation Is Associated with Increased Monocyte Activation and Dementia in AIDS Patient,” PLoS One, Vol. 3, No. 6, 2008, e2516. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002516
[58] J. Thorpe, S. Saeed, E. E. M. Moodie and M. B. Klein, “For the Canadian Co-Infection Cohort Study (CTN222). Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption Leads to Progression of Liver Fibrosis in HIV-hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection,” AIDS, Vol. 25, No. 7, 2011, pp. 967-975. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283455e4b
[59] M. López-Diéguez, M. L. Montes, J. F. Pascual-Pareja, et al, “The Natural History of Liver Cirrhosis in HIV-Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients,” AIDS, Vol. 25, No. 7, 2011, pp. 899-904. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283454174
[60] S. Dominguez, J. Ghoen, G. Peytavin, et al., “Impact of Hepatitis C and Liver Fibrosis on Antiretroviral Plasma Drug Concentrations in HIV-HCV Coinfected Patients The HEPADOSE Study,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 65, No. 11, 2010, pp 2445-2449. doi:10.1093/jac/dkq320
[61] R. Bruno, S. Galastri, P. Sacchi, et al., “Gp120 Modulates the Biology of Human Hepatic Stellate Cells: A Link between HIV Infection and Liver Fibrogenesis,” Gut, Vol. 59, 2010, pp. 513-520. doi:10.1136/gut.2008.163287
[62] A. Kovacs, R. Karim, W. J. Mack, et al., “Activation of CD8 T cells Predicts Progression of HIV Infection in Women Coinfected with Hepatitis C Virus,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 201, No. 6, 2010, pp.823-834. doi:10.1086/650997
[63] V. D. Gonzalez, K. Falconer, K. G. Blom, et al., “High Levels of Chronic Immune Activation in the T-Cell Compartments of Patients Coinfected with Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Are Reverted by Alpha Interferon and Ribavirin Treatment,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 83, No. 21, 2009, pp.11407-11411. doi:10.1128/JVI.01211-09
[64] G. Marchetti, P. Nasta, F. Bai, et al., “Circulating sCD14 Is Associated with Virological Response to Pegylated-Interferon-Alpha/Ribavirin Treatment in HIV/HCV Co-Infected Patients,” PLoS One, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2012, e32028.
[65] Italian Ministry of Health, “Italian Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents and the Diagnostic-Clinical Management of HIV-1 Infected Persons,” 2012.
[66] G. Cariti, P. Nasta, G. Angarano, et al., “Sustained Virological Response (SVR) to Anti Hepatitis C (HCV) Therapy with Pegylated IFN Alpha (PegIFN) Plus Ribavirin (RBV) in Patient with HIV/HCV Coinfection,” ICAR Italian Conference on AIDS and retroviruses, 10-12 June, 2012, Naples, Italy oral communication OC 53.
[67] T. Reiberger, B. A. Payer, L. Kosi, et al. (For the Vienna HIV Coinfection Study Group), “Concomitant Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Leads to Smaller Decline and Faster Recovery of CD4+ Cell Counts During and After Pegylated Interferon on Plus Ribavirin Therapy in HIV-Hepatitis C Virus Coinfected Patients,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 203, No. 12, 2011, pp.1802-1806. doi:10.1093/infdis/jir194
[68] J. Berenguer, M. A. von Wichmann, C. Quereda, et al., “Effect of Accompanying Antiretroviral Drugs on Virological Response to Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin in Patients Co-Infected with HIV and Hepatitis C Virus,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 66, No. 12, 2011, pp. 2843-2849. doi:10.1093/jac/dkr362
[69] F. Bani-Sadr, L. Denoeud, P. Morand, et al., “Early Virologic Failure in HIV-Coinfected Hepatitis C Patients Treated with the Peginterferon-Ribavirin Combination: Does Abacavir Play a Role?” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Vol. 45, No. 1, 2007, pp. 123-125. doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e318040b2b6
[70] C. Solas, E. Pambrun, M. Winnock, et al. (For the ANRS CO-13 HEPAVIH Study Group), “Ribavirin and Abacavir Drug Interaction in HIV-HCV Coinfected Patients: Fact or Fiction? AIDS, Vol. 26, No. 17, 2012, pp. 2193-2199. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32835763a4
[71] P. Nasta, F. Gatti, M. Puoti, et al., “Insulin Resistance Impairs Rapid Virologic Response in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus Coinfected Patients on Peginterferon-alfa-2a,” AIDS, Vol. 22, No. 7, 2008, pp. 857-861. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282fbd1c4
[72] P. Cacoub, F. Carrat, P. Bédossa, et al., “Insulin Resistance Impairs Sustained Virological Response Rate to Pegylated Interferon Plus Ribavirin in HIV-Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients: HOMAVIC-ANRS HC02 Study,” Antiviral Therapy, Vol. 14, 2009, pp. 839-845. doi:10.3851/IMP1298
[73] S. Naggie and M. S. Sulkowski, “Management of Patients Coinfected with HCV and HIV: A Close Look at the Role for Direct-Acting Antivirals,” Gastroenterology, Vol. 142, No. 6, 2012, pp. 1324-1334. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2012.02.012
[74] T. Kakuda, L. Leopold, S. Nijs, et al., “Pharmacoki Netic Interaction between Etravirine or Rilpivirine and Telaprevir in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomised, Two-Way Crossover Trial,” 13th International Workshop on Clinical Pharmacology of HIV Therapy, 16-18 April, 2012, Barcelona, Abstract O-18.
[75] E. Hulskotte, H. P. Feng, F. Xuan, et al., “Pharma Cokinetic Interaction between the HCV Protease Inhibitor Boceprevir and Ritonavir-Boosted HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors Atazanavir, Lopinavir, and Darunavir,” 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, 5-8 March, 2012, Seattle, Abstract 771LB.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.