Combined phosphodiesterase inhibitors in end-stage heart failure: A case presentation

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DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.33042    3,190 Downloads   4,357 Views   Citations


Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality and is evolving to epidemic proportions. Despite pharmacologic advances and device interventions, HF remains a progressive disease. The phosphodiesterase inhibitors-3 (PDE3I), and more recently, the phosphodiesterase inhibitors-5 (PDE5I) have been used as part of the treatment in certain patients, however, such combination has not been studied or reported before.

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Reyna, J. , Peguero, J. , Escolar, E. , Santana, O. and Lamas, G. (2013) Combined phosphodiesterase inhibitors in end-stage heart failure: A case presentation. World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, 3, 266-267. doi: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.33042.

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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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