Combined phosphodiesterase inhibitors in end-stage heart failure: A case presentation


Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality and is evolving to epidemic proportions. Despite pharmacologic advances and device interventions, HF remains a progressive disease. The phosphodiesterase inhibitors-3 (PDE3I), and more recently, the phosphodiesterase inhibitors-5 (PDE5I) have been used as part of the treatment in certain patients, however, such combination has not been studied or reported before.

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Reyna, J. , Peguero, J. , Escolar, E. , Santana, O. and Lamas, G. (2013) Combined phosphodiesterase inhibitors in end-stage heart failure: A case presentation. World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, 3, 266-267. doi: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.33042.

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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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