Share This Article:

1,4-Hydroquinone is a Hydrogen Reservoir for Fuel Cells and Recyclable via Photocatalytic Water Splitting

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1905KB) PP. 97-102
DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2013.32012    6,259 Downloads   10,571 Views   Citations


Photocatalytic splitting of water was carried out in a two-phase system. Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide was used as photocatalyst and potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)/(II) as electron transporter. Generated hydrogen was chemically stored by use of a 1,4-benzoquinone/1,4-hydroquinone system, which was used as a recyclable fuel in a commercialised direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The electrical output of the cell was about half compared to methanol. The conversion process for water splitting and recombination in a fuel cell was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and compared to a simulated spectrum. Products of side reactions, which lead to a decrease of the overall efficiency, were identified based on UV-Vis investigations. A proof of principle for the use of quinoide systems as a recyclable hydrogen storage system in a photocatalytic water splitting and fuel cell cyclic process was given.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

T. Wilke, M. Schneider and K. Kleinermanns, "1,4-Hydroquinone is a Hydrogen Reservoir for Fuel Cells and Recyclable via Photocatalytic Water Splitting," Open Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 97-102. doi: 10.4236/ojpc.2013.32012.


[1] R. Pike and P. Earis, “Powering the World with Sunlight,” Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2010, p. 173. doi:10.1039/b924940k
[2] N. Kelly, T. Gibson and D. Ouwerkerk, “Generation of High-Pressure Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Using Photovoltaic-Powered Water Electrolysis,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 36, No. 24, 2011, pp. 15803-15825. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.08.058
[3] E. Durgun, S. Ciraci, W. Zhou and T. Yildirim, “Transition-Metal-Ethylene Complexes as High-Capacity Hydrogen-Storage Media,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 97, No. 22, 2006, pp. 1-4. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.226102
[4] T. Wilke, D. Schriker, J. Rolf and K. Kleinermanns, “Solar Water Splitting by Semiconductor Nanocomposites and Hydrogen Storage with Quinoid Systems,” Open Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2012, pp. 195-203. doi:10.4236/ojpc.2012.24027
[5] M. Gratzel, “Photoelectrochemical Cells,” Nature, Vol. 414, No. 6861, 2001, pp. 338-344. doi:10.1038/35104607
[6] A. Hagfeldt and M. Gratzel, “Light-Induced Redox Reactions in Nanocrystalline Systems,” Chemical Reviews, Vol. 95, No. 1, 1995, pp. 49-68. doi:10.1021/cr00033a003
[7] M. Kaneko and I. Okura, “Photocatalysis—Science and Technology,” Springer, Heidelberg, 2002.
[8] D. Ogermann, T. Wilke and K. Kleinermanns, “CdSxSey/ TiO2 Solar Cell Prepared with Sintered Mixture Deposition,” Open Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012, pp. 47-57. doi:10.4236/ojpc.2012.21007
[9] T. Ohno, K. Fujihara, K. Sarukawa, F. Tanigawa and M. Matsumura, “Splitting of Water by Combining Two Photocatalytic Reactions through a Quinone Compound Dissolved in an Oil Phase,” Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Vol. 213, No. 2,1999, pp. 165-174. doi:10.1524/zpch.1999.213.Part_2.165
[10] A. S. Aricò, V. Baglio and V. Antonucci, “Electrocatalysis of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells,” Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2009.
[11] I. Chang, M. Lee, J. Du and S. W. Cha, “Characteristic Behaviors on Air-Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cells,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol. 13, No. 7, 2012, pp. 1141-1144. doi:10.1007/s12541-012-0151-y
[12] H. Dohle, J. Mergel and D. Stolten, “Heat and Power Management of a Direct-Methanol-Fuel-Cell (DMFC) System,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 111, No. 2, 2002, pp. 268-282. doi:10.1016/S0378-7753(02)00339-7
[13] A. S. Aricò, V. Antonucci and N. Giordano, “Methanol Oxidation on Carbon-Supported Platinum-Tin Electrodes in Sulfuric Acid,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 50, No. 3, 1994, pp. 295-309. doi:10.1016/0378-7753(94)01908-8
[14] D. R. Lide and W. M. Haynes, “CRC Hanbook of Chemistry and Physics,” Taylor & Francis, London, 2009.
[15] L. L. Houk, S. K. Johnson, J. Feng, R. S. Houk and D. C. Johnson, “Electrochemical Incineration of Benzoquinone in Aqueous Media Using a Quaternary Metal Oxide Electrode in the Absence of a Soluble Supporting Electrolyte,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, Vol. 28, No. 11, 1998, pp. 1167-1177. doi:10.1023/A:1003439727317
[16] F. Cataldo, “On the Structure of Macromolecules Obtained by Oxidative Polymerization of Polyhydroxyphenols and Quinones,” Polymer International, Vol. 46, No. 4, 1998, pp. 263-268. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0126(199808)46:4<263::AID-PI983>3.0.CO;2-0
[17] K. K. Kalninsh and E. F. Panarin, “Catalytic Hydrogen Transfer in Donor-Acceptor Complexes,” Doklady Chemistry, Vol. 437, No. 2, 2011, pp. 82-86. doi:10.1134/S0012500811040021

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.