Share This Article:

XANES and XPS Study on Microstructure of Mn-Doped ZnO Films

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:983KB) PP. 307-311
DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.45039    5,279 Downloads   8,595 Views   Citations


Microstructure of ZnO:Mn films with various Mn concentration was investigated with XANES and XPS. The experimental results revealed a substitution of Mn in ZnO and also excluded the existence of Mn oxides or metallic manganese clusters. The substitutional Mn presented a divalent state and all the ZnO:Mn films were n-type. Room temperature ferromagnetism monotonously decreases with the decrease of the electron carrier concentration. The observed ferrmagnetism should come from the carrier-mediated exchange.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

B. Zhang, M. Li, J. Wang, L. Shi and H. Cheng, "XANES and XPS Study on Microstructure of Mn-Doped ZnO Films," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 4 No. 5, 2013, pp. 307-311. doi: 10.4236/msa.2013.45039.


[1] B. Zhang, Q. H. Li, L. Q. Shi, H. S. Cheng and J. Z. Wang, “Room Temperature Ferromagnetism of Fe-Implanted ZnO Film,” Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, Vol. 26, No. 6, 2008, pp. 1469-1473. doi:10.1116/1.2990855
[2] B. Zhang, L. Q. Shi, C. C. Chen and D. G. Zhao, “PIXE Analysis of Fe Content in Fe-Implanted GaN Film,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B, Vol. 252, No. 2, 2006, pp. 225-229. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2006.09.007
[3] X. F. Wang, J. B. Xu, W. Y. Cheng, J. An and N. Ke, “Aggregation-Based Growth and Magnetic Properties of Inhomogeneous Cu-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, No. 21, 2007, Article ID: 212502. doi:10.1063/1.2741408
[4] T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert and D. Ferrand, “Zener Model Description of Ferromagnetism in ZincBlende Magnetic Semiconductors,” Science, Vol. 287, No. 5455, 2000, pp. 1019-1022. doi:10.1126/science.287.5455.1019
[5] A. C. Tuan, J. D. Bryan, A. B. Pakhomov, V. Shutthanandan, S. Thevuthasan, D. E. McCready, D. Gaspar, M. H. Engelhard, J. W. Rogers Jr., K. Krishnan, D. R. Gamelin and S. A. Chambers, “Epitaxial Growth and Properties of Cobalt-Doped ZnO on α-Al2O3 Single-Crystal Substrates,” Physical Review B, Vol. 70, No. 5, 2004, Article ID: 054424. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.70.054424
[6] X. Z. Li, J. Zhang and D. J. Sellmyer, “Structural Study of Mn-Doped ZnO Films by TEM,” Solid State Communications, Vol. 141, No. 7, 2007, pp. 398-401. doi:10.1016/j.ssc.2006.11.022
[7] K. Potzger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Reuther, A. Mücklich, F. Eichhorn, N. Schell, W. Skorupa, M. Helm, J. Fassbender, T. Herrmannsd0rfer and T. P. Papageorgiou, “Fe Implanted Ferromagnetic ZnO,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, No. 5, 2006, Article ID: 052508. doi:10.1063/1.2169912
[8] C. Yang, B. Zhang, J. Z. Wang, L. Q. Shi, H. S. Cheng, T. Y. Yang, W. Wen and F. C. Hu, “Microstructure and Room Temperature Ferromagnetism of Cu-Doped ZnO Films,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics, Vol. 283, 2012, pp. 24-28. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2012.04.007
[9] C. Yang, B. Zhang, J. Z. Wang, L. Q. Shi, H. S. Cheng, T. Y. Yang, W. Wen and F. C. Hu, “EXAFS and SR-XRD Study on Cu Occupation Sites in Zn1-xCuxO Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors,” Nuclear Science and Techniques, Vol. 23, 2012, pp. 65-69.
[10] X. J. Liu, X. Y. Zhu, C. Song, F. Zeng and F. Pan, “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Origins of Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Ni-Doped ZnO Films,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 42, 2009, Article ID: 035004. doi:10.1088/0022-3727/42/3/035004
[11] D. Gao, Z. Zhang, J. Fu, Y. Xu, J. Qi and D. Xue, “Room Temperature Ferromagnetism of Pure ZnO Nanoparticles,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 105, No. 11, 2009, Article ID: 113928. doi:10.1063/1.3143103
[12] S. Banerjee, M. Mandal, N. Gayathri and M. Sardar, “Enhancement of Ferromagnetism upon Thermal Annealing in Pure ZnO,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 18, 2007, Article ID: 182501. doi:10.1063/1.2804081
[13] X. G. Chen, Y. B. Yang, R. Wu, R. Liu, X. D. Kong, L. Han, Y. C. Yang and J. B. Yang, “Room Temperature Magnetic Properties of ZnO Nanostructured Films,” Physica B, Vol. 406, No. 6, 2011, pp. 1341-1344. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2011.01.030
[14] J. M. D. Coey, M. Venkatesan and C. B. Fitzgerald, “Donor Impurity Band Exchange in Dilute Ferromagnetic Oxides,” Nature Materials, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2005, pp. 173-179. doi:10.1038/nmat1310
[15] Z. Yang, J. L. Liu, M. Biasini and W. P. Beyermann, “Electron Concentration Dependent Magnetization and Magnetic Anisotropy in ZnO:Mn Thin Films,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 4, 2008, Article ID: 042111. doi:10.1063/1.2838753
[16] M. Ivill, S. J. Pearton, Y. W. Heo, J. Kelly, A. F. Hebard and D. P. Norton, “Magnetization Dependence on Carrier Doping in Epitaxial ZnO Thin Films Co-Doped with Mn and P,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 101, No. 12, 2007, Article ID: 123909. doi:10.1063/1.2739302
[17] K. Sato and H. Katayama-Yoshida, “Material Design for Transparent Ferromagnets with ZnO-Based Magnetic Semiconductors,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 2, Vol. 39, 2000, pp. L555-L558. doi:10.1143/JJAP.39.L555
[18] A. L. Ankudinov, B. Ravel, J. J. Rehr and S. D. Conradson, “Real-Space Multiple-Scattering Calculation and Interpretation of x-Ray-Absorption Near-Edge Structure,” Physical Review B, Vol. 58, No. 12, 1998, pp. 7565-7576. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.58.7565
[19] M. Li, B. Zhang, J. Z. Wang, L. Q. Shi, H. S. Cheng, Y. Z. Wang, H. Y. Lv, T. Y. Yang, W. Wen and F. C. Hu, “EXAFS and SR-XRD Study on Mn Occupations in Zn1-xMnxO Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B, Vol. 269, No. 21, 2011, pp. 2610-2613. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2011.07.094
[20] Y. Joly, “X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Calculations beyond the Muffin-Tin Approximation,” Physical Review B, Vol. 63, No. 12, 2001, Article ID: 125120. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.63.125120
[21] H. Y. Xu, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao and R. Mu, “Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in (Mn, N)Codoped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Reactive Magnetron Cosputtering,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, No. 24, 2006, Article ID: 242502. doi:10.1063/1.2213929
[22] Z. B. Gu, M. H. Lu, J. Wang, D. Wu, S. T. Zhang, X. K. Meng, Y. Y. Zhu, S. N. Zhu, Y. F. Chen and X. Q. Pan, “Structure, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Sputtered Manganese and Nitrogen-Codoped ZnO Films,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, No. 8, 2006, Article ID: 082111. doi:10.1063/1.2178466

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.