Share This Article:

Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) Polymers Prior to Electrospinning

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:826KB) PP. 87-93
DOI: 10.4236/anp.2013.22015    5,101 Downloads   9,908 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Electrospun nanofibers present a new and rapidly growing research area due to their pronounced micro and nano characteristics associated with high surface area to volume ratio. Poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) and polystyrene polymers were synthesized by boiling temperature soap free emulsion polymerization in aqueous medium with potassium peroxosulphate as the initiator. The resulting polymers were dissolved in dimethylformamide and teterahydrofuran (DMF: THF) (4:1) to form polymer solutions that were electrospun into fiber mats with diameters ranging from 1.84 - 2.53 μm and 5.01 μm, respectively. The fibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) equipped with universal ATR sampling accessory (4000 - 400 cm-1). The morphology and size were examined by a scanning electron miscroscope (SEM) and the thermal properties by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FTIR spectra of the poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) revealed the presence of acrylamide on the polystyrene chain. Thus, surface modification of polystyrene with acrylamide is possible in a single step polymerization reaction prior to electrospinning.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Oketola, A. and Torto, N. (2013) Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) Polymers Prior to Electrospinning. Advances in Nanoparticles, 2, 87-93. doi: 10.4236/anp.2013.22015.

References

[1] B. Sundaray, V. Subramanian, T. S. Natarajan, R. Z. Xiang, C. C. Chang and W. S. Fann, “Electrospinning of Continuous Aligned Polymer Fibers,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 84, No. 7, 2004, pp. 1222-1224. doi:10.1063/1.1647685
[2] C. Zhang, Q. Liu, N. Zhan, Q. Yang, Y. Song, L. Sun, H. Wang and Y. Li, “A Novel Approach to Prepare Silver Chloride Nanoparticles Grown on the Surface of Nanofiber via Electrospinning Combined with Gas-Solid Reaction,” Colloid and Surface A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 353, No. 1, 2010, pp. 64-68. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2009.10.022
[3] S. Chigome and N. Torto, “A Review of Opportunities for Electrospun Nanofibers in Analytical Chemistry,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 706, No. 1, 2011, pp. 25-36. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2011.08.021
[4] J. M. Deitzel, J. Kleinmeyer, D. Harris and N. C. B. Tan, “The Effect of Processing Variables on the Morphology of Electrospun Nanofibers and Textiles,” Polymer, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2001, pp. 261-272. doi:10.1016/S0032-3861(00)00250-0
[5] T. Ondarcuhu and C. Joachim, “Drawing a Single Nanofibre over Hundreds of Microns,” Europhysics Letters, Vol. 42, No. 2, 1998, pp. 215-220. doi:10.1209/epl/i1998-00233-9
[6] L. Feng, S. Li, H. Li, J. Zhai, Y. Song, L. Jiang and D. Zhu, “Super-Hydrophobic Surface of Aligned Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 41, No. 7, 2002, pp. 1221-1223. doi:10.1002/1521-3773(20020402)41:7<1221::AID-ANIE1221>3.0.CO;2-G
[7] C. R. Martin, “Membrane-Based Synthesis of Nanomaterials,” Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 8, No. 8, 1996, pp. 1739-1746. doi:10.1021/cm960166s
[8] P. X. Ma and R. Zhang, “Synthetic Nano-Scale Fibrous Extracellular Matrix,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Vol. 46, No. 1, 1999, pp. 60-72. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4636(199907)46:1<60::AID-JBM7>3.0.CO;2-H
[9] G. J. Liu, J. F. Ding, L. J. Qiao, A. Guo, B. P. Dymov and J. T. Gleeson,” Polystyrene-block-poly(2-cinnamoylethyl methacrylate) Nanofibers—Preparation, Characterization, and Liquid Crystalline Properties,” Chemistry—A European Journal, Vol. 5, No. 9, 1999, pp. 2740-2749. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-3765(19990903)5:9<2740::AID-CHEM2740>3.0.CO;2-V
[10] G. M. Whitesides and B. Grzybowski, “Self-Assembly at All Scales,” Science, Vol. 295, No. 5564, 2002, pp. 24182421. doi:10.1126/science.1070821
[11] Z. M. Huang, Y. Z. Zhang, M. Kotaki and S. Ramakrishna, “A Review on Polymer Nanofibers by Electrospinning and Their Applications in Nanocomposites,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 63, No. 15, 2003, pp. 2223-2253. doi:10.1016/S0266-3538(03)00178-7
[12] Y. Zhang, X. Kang, L. Chen, C. Pao, Y. Yao and Z. Z. Gu, “Fiber-Packed SPE Tips Based on Electrospun Fibers” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 391, No. 6, 2008, pp. 2189-2197. doi:10.1007/s00216-008-2145-2
[13] H. Q. Liu and Y. L. Hsieh, “Ultrafine Fibrous Cellulose Membranes from Electrospinning of Cellulose Acetate,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, Vol. 40, No. 18, 2002, pp. 2119-2129. doi:10.1002/polb.10261
[14] P. P. Tsaia, H. Schreuder-Gibson and P. Gibson, “Different Electrostatic Methods for Making Electrets Filters,” Journal of Electrostatics, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, 2002, pp. 333-341. doi:10.1016/S0304-3886(01)00160-7
[15] P. W. Gibson, H. L. Schreuder-Gibson and D. Rivin, “Transport Properties of Porous Membranes Based on Electrospun Nanofibers,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 187-188, 2001, pp. 469-481. doi:10.1016/S0927-7757(01)00616-1
[16] H. L. Schreuder-Gibson, P. Gibson, K. Senecal, M. Sennett, J. Walker, W. Yeomans, et al., “Protective Textile Materials Based on Electrospun Nanofibers,” Journal of Advanced Materials, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2002, pp. 44-55.
[17] L. Chen, L. Bromberg, T. Hatton and G. Rutledge, “Catalytic Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Acetate by Electrospun Polyacrylamidoxime Nanofibers,” Polymer, Vol. 48, No. 16, 2007, pp. 4675-4682. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2007.05.084
[18] S. Chand, “Review: Carbon Fibers for Composites,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 35, No. 6, 2000, pp. 13031313. doi:10.1023/A:1004780301489
[19] J. A. Matthews, G. E. Wnek, D. G. Simpson and G. L. Bowlin, “Electrospinning of Collagen Nanofibers,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2002, pp. 232-238. doi:10.1021/bm015533u
[20] V. N. Morozov, T. Y. Morozova and N. R. Kallenbach, “Atomic Force Microscopy of Structures Produced by Electrospraying Polymer Solutions,” International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 178, No. 3, 1998, pp. 143159. doi:10.1016/S1387-3806(98)14083-6
[21] M. M. Hohman, M. Shin, G. Rutledge and M. P. Brenner, “Electrospinning and Electrically Forced Jets. II. Applications,” Physics of Fluids, Vol. 13, No. 8, 2001, pp. 2221-2236. doi:10.1063/1.1384013
[22] P. S. Nair, T. Radhakrishnan, N. Revaprasadu, C. G. C. E. van Sittert, V. Djokovic and A. S. Luyt, “Characterisation of Polystyrene Filled with HgS Nanoparticles,” Materials Letters, Vol. 58, No. 3-4, 2004, pp. 361-364. doi:10.1016/S0167-577X(03)00501-9
[23] Bognitzki, W. Czado, T. Frese, A. Schaper, M. Hellwig and M. Steinhart, “Nanostructured Fibers via Electrospinning,” Advanced Materials, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2001, pp. 70-72. doi:10.1002/1521-4095(200101)13:1<70::AID-ADMA70>3.3.CO;2-8
[24] J. M. Jin, J. M. Lee, M. H. Ha, K. Lee and S. Choe, “Highly Cross-Linked Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-codivinylbenzene) Particles by Precipitation Polymerization,” Polymer, Vol. 48, No. 11, 2007, pp. 3107-3115. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2007.03.068
[25] Z. Z. Gu, H. Chen, S. Zhang, L. Sun, Z. Xie and Y. Ge, “Rapid Synthesis of Monodisperse Polymer Spheres for Self-Assembled Photonic Crystals,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 302, No. 1-3, 2007, pp. 312-319. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2007.02.064
[26] J. Zhao and G. Geuskens, “Surface Modification of Polymers VI. Thermal and Radiochemical Grafting of Acrylamide on Polyethylene and Polystyrene,” European Polymer Journal, Vol. 35, No. 12, 1999, pp. 2115-2123. doi:10.1016/S0014-3057(99)00026-9
[27] L. da Cunha, F. M. B. Coutinho, V. G. Teixeira, E. F. O. de Jesus and A. S. Gomes, “Surface Modification of Styrene-Divinylbenzene Copolymers by Polyacrylamide Grafting via Gamma Irradiation,” Polymer Bulletin, Vol. 61, No. 3, 2008, pp. 319-330. doi:10.1007/s00289-008-0962-2
[28] S. L. Shenoy, W. D. Bates, H. L. Frisch and G. E. Wnek, “Role of Chain Entanglements on Fiber Formation during Electrospinning of Polymer Solutions: Good Solvent, NonSpecific Polymer-Polymer Interaction Limit,” Polymer, Vol. 46, No. 10, 2005, pp. 3372-3384. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2005.03.011
[29] J. Huang, H. Pen, Z. Xu and C. Yi, “Magnetic Fe3O4/ Poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) Composite Nanoparticles Prepared by Microwave-Assisted Emulsion Polymerization,” Reactive and functional Polymers, Vol. 68, No .1, 2008, pp. 332-339. doi:10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2007.08.002
[30] Greiner and J. H. Wendorff, “Electrospinning: A Fascinating Method for the Preparation of Ultrathin Fibers,” Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 16, No. 46, 2007, pp. 56705703. doi:10.1002/anie.200604646
[31] J. Doshi and D. H. Reneker, “Electrospinning Process and Applications of Electrospun Fibers,” Journal of Electrostatics, Vol. 35, No. 2-3, 1995, pp. 151-160. doi:10.1016/0304-3886(95)00041-8
[32] M. M. Demir, I. Yilgor, E. Yilgor and B. Erman, “Electrospinning of Polyurethane Fibers,” Polymer, Vol. 43, No. 11, 2002, pp. 3303-3309. doi:10.1016/S0032-3861(02)00136-2
[33] H. Fong, I. Chun and D. H. Reneker, “Beaded Nanofibers Formed during Electrospinning,” Polymer, Vol. 40, No. 16, 1999, pp. 4585-4592. doi:10.1016/S0032-3861(99)00068-3

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.