Informing Primary School Nutritional Policy: Effects of Mid-Morning Snacks on Appetite and Energy Control


The purpose of this research was to inform primary school nutritional policy by identifying which mid-morning snack would be more beneficial to consume from an appetite control perspective. During morning break 14 girls and 11 boys were provided with 160 ml of semi-skimmed milk or153 gof apple in a randomised crossover manner. Visual analogue scales were used to record hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness, immediately before and after breakfast, immediately before and after the mid-morning snack, and every 60 min until 21:00 on each day. School dinner/packed lunch energy intakes were assessed 90 min following the mid-morning snacks, in addition to evening energy intake. Children felt less hungry and could eat less when apple was consumed, however lunch and evening energy intakes were not different. Fluctuations in appetite did not translate into differences in energy intake therefore both milk and fruit should be promoted as mid-morning snacks in primary schools.

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P. Rumbold, C. Dodd-Reynolds and E. Stevenson, "Informing Primary School Nutritional Policy: Effects of Mid-Morning Snacks on Appetite and Energy Control," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 5, 2013, pp. 529-537. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.45068.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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