Share This Article:

Chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells in human umbilical cord stroma with PGA and PLLA scaffolds

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:3089KB) PP. 1041-1049
DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.311135    5,122 Downloads   10,602 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The stem cells in the umbilical cord stroma, or Wharton’s jelly, are referred to as human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (hUCMSCs) and have been shown to differentiate along a chondrogenic lineage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chondrogenic differentiation of hUCMSCs in either polyglycolic acid (PGA) or poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) non-woven mesh scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. PGA is widely known to degrade faster than PLLA, and over longer time scales, and differences may be expected to emerge after extended culture periods. Therefore, the focus of this study was to evaluate differences over a shorter duration. After 21 days of culture in PLLA or PGA scaffolds, hUCMSC constructs were analyzed for biochemical content, histology, and gene expression. Overall, there were only minute differences between the two scaffold groups, with similar gene expression and biosynthesis. The most notable difference was a change in shape from cylindrical to spherical by the PGA, but not PLLA, scaffold group. The overall similar behavior of the groups may suggest that in vivo application of hUCMSC-seeded PLLA or PGA scaffolds, following a 21-day pre-culture period, may yield similar constructs at the time of implantation. However, differences may begin to become more apparent with in vivo performance following implantation, or with in vitro performance over longer time periods.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Zhao, L. and Detamore, M. (2010) Chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells in human umbilical cord stroma with PGA and PLLA scaffolds. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 3, 1041-1049. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2010.311135.

References

[1] Simon, T.M. and Jackson, D.W. (2006) Articular cartilage: injury pathways and treatment options. Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review, 14, 146-154.
[2] Verbruggen, G., Wittoek, R., Groeneboer, S., Cruyssen, B.V., Goemaere, S. and Elewaut, D. (2007). Osteochondral repair in synovial joints. Current Opinion in Rheumatology, 19, 265-271.
[3] Hunziker, E.B. (1999) Articular cartilage repair: Are the intrinsic biological constraints undermining this process insuperable? Osteoarthritis and Cartilage/OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society, 7, 15-28.
[4] Shay, J.W. and Wright, W.E. (2000) The use of telomerized cells for tissue engineering. Nature Biotechnology, 18, 22-23.
[5] Liechty, K.W., MacKenzie, T.C., Shaaban, A.F., Radu, A. Moseley, A.M., Deans, R., Marshak, D.R. and Flake, A.W. (2000) Human mesenchymal stem cells engraft and demonstrate site-specific differentiation after in utero transplantation in sheep. Nature Medicine, 6, 1282-1286.
[6] Yamashita, J., Itoh, H., Hirashima, M., Ogawa, M., Nishikawa, S. Yurugi, T. Naito, M. Nakao, K. and Nishikawa, S. (2000) Flk1-positive cells derived from embryonic stem cells serve as vascular progenitors. Nature, 408, 92-96.
[7] Service, R.F. (2000) Tissue engineers build new bone. Science, 289, 1498-1500.
[8] Wang, H.S., Hung, S.C., Peng, S.T., Huang, C.C., Wei, H.M., Guo, Y.J., Fu, Y.S., Lai, M.C. and Chen, C.C. (2004) Mesenchymal stem cells in the Wharton’s jelly of the human umbilical cord. Stem Cells, 22, 1330-1337.
[9] Weiss, M.L., Medicetty, S., Bledsoe, A.R., Rachakatla, R.S., Choi, M., Merchav, S., Luo, Y., Rao, M.S., Velagaleti, G. and Troyer, D. (2006) Human umbilical cord matrix stem cells: Preliminary characterization and effect of transplantation in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. Stem Cells, 24, 781-792.
[10] Can, A. and Karahuseyinoglu, S. (2007) Concise review, human umbilical cord stroma with regard to the source of fetus-derived stem cells. Stem Cells, 25, 2886-2895.
[11] Friedman, R., Betancur, M., Boissel, L., Tuncer, H., Cetrulo, C. and Klingemann, H. (2007) Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, adjuvants for human cell transplantation. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 13, 1477-1486.
[12] Bakhshi, T, Zabriskie, R.C., Bodie, S., Kidd, S., Ramin, S., Paganessi, L.A., Gregory, S.A., Fung. H.C. and Christopherson, K.W. (2008) Mesenchymal stem cells from the Wharton’s jelly of umbilical cord segments provide stromal support for the maintenance of cord blood hematopoietic stem cells during long-term ex vivo culture. Transfusion, 48, 2638-2644.
[13] Baksh, D., Yao, R. and Tuan, R.S. (2007) Comparison of proliferative and multilineage differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord and bone marrow. Stem Cells, 25, 1384-1392.
[14] Wang, L., Seshareddy K., Weiss, M.L. and Detamore, M.S. (2009) Effect of initial seeding density on human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells for fibrocartilage tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering, Part A, 15, 1009-1017.
[15] Wang, L., Tran, I., Seshareddy, K., Weiss, M.L. and Detamore, M.S. (2009) A comparison of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering, Part A, 15, 2259- 2266.
[16] Wang L., Singh, M., Bonewald, L.F. and Detamore, M.S. (2009) Signalling strategies for osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells for 3D bone tissue engineering. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 3, 398-404.
[17] Masuoka, K., Asazuma, T., Ishihara, M., Sato, M., Hattori, H., Ishihara, M., Yoshihara, Y., Matsui, T., Takase, B., Kikuchi, M. and Nemoto, K. (2005) Tissue engineering of articular cartilage using an allograft of cultured chondrocytes in a membrane-sealed atelocollagen honeycomb-shaped scaffold (ACHMS scaffold). Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 75, 177-184.
[18] Chang, C.H., Kuo, T.F., Lin, C.C., Chou, C.H., Chen, K.H., Lin, F.H. and Liu, H.C. (2006) Tissue engineering-based cartilage repair with allogenous chondrocytes and gelatin-chondroitin-hyaluronan tri-copolymer scaffold, A porcine model assessed at 18, 24, and 36 weeks. Biomaterials, 27, 1876-1888.
[19] Lisignoli, G., Cristino, S., Piacentini, A., Toneguzzi, S., Grassi, F., Cavallo, C., Zini, N., Solimando, L., Mario Maraldi, N. and Facchini, A. (2005) Cellular and molecular events during chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells grown in a three-dimensional hyaluronan based scaffold. Biomaterials, 26, 5677-5686.
[20] Mauck, R.L., Yuan, X. and Tuan, R.S. (2006) Chondrogenic differentiation and functional maturation of bovine mesenchymal stem cells in long-term agarose culture. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage/OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society 14, 179-189.
[21] Nettles, D.L., Elder, S.H. and Gilbert, J.A. (2002) Potential use of chitosan as a cell scaffold material for cartilage tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering, 8, 1009-1016.
[22] Steinert, A, Weber, M., Dimmler, A., Julius, C., Schutze, N., Noth, U., Cramer, H., Eulert, J., Zimmermann, U. and Hendrich, C. (2003) Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells encapsulated in ultrahigh-viscosity alginate. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 21, 1090-1097.
[23] Mahmoudifar, N. and Doran, P.M. (2005) Tissue engineering of human cartilage and osteochondral composites using recirculation bioreactors. Biomaterials, 26, 7012- 7024.
[24] Puelacher, W.C., Mooney, D., Langer, R., Upton, J., Vacanti, J.P. and Vacanti, C.A. (1994) Design of nasoseptal cartilage replacements synthesized from biodegradable polymers and chondrocytes. Biomaterials, 15, 774-778.
[25] Ma, P.X., Schloo, B., Mooney, D. and Langer, R. (1995) Development of biomechanical properties and morphogenesis of in vitro tissue engineered cartilage. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 29, 1587-1595.
[26] Ishaug-Riley, S.L., Okun, L.E., Prado, G., Applegate, M.A. and Ratcliffe, A. (1999) Human articular chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation on synthetic biodegradable polymer films. Biomaterials, 20, 2245-2256.
[27] Zwingmann, J., Mehlhorn, A.T., Sudkamp, N., Stark, B., Dauner, M. and Schmal, H. (2007) Chondrogenic differentiation of human articular chondrocytes differs in biodegradable PGA/PLA scaffolds. Tissue Engineering, 13, 2335-2343.
[28] Richardson, S.M., Curran, J.M., Chen, R., Vaughan- Thomas, A., Hunt, J.A., Freemont, A.J. and Hoyland, J.A. (2006) The differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocyte-like cells on poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffolds. Biomaterials, 27, 4069-4078.
[29] Stevens, M.M., Qanadilo, H.F., Langer R. and Prasad Shastri, V. (2004) A rapid-curing alginate gel system, utility in periosteum-derived cartilage tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 25, 887-894.
[30] Wang L, K Seshareddy, ML Weiss and MS Detamore. (2009) Effect of Initial Seeding Density on Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Fibrocartilage Tissue Engineering. Tissue Engineering, Part A, 15(5), 1009-1017.
[31] Wang, L., Dormer, N.H., Bonewald, L.F. and Detamore, M.S. (2010) Osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells in polyglycolic acid scaffolds. Tissue Engineering, Part A, 16, 1937- 1948.
[32] Kawanishi, M., Oura, A., Furukawa, K., Fukubayashi, T., Nakamura, K., Tateishi, T. and Ushida, T. (2007) Redifferentiation of dedifferentiated bovine articular chondrocytes enhanced by cyclic hydrostatic pressure under a gas-controlled system. Tissue Engineering, 13, 957-964.
[33] Livak, K.J. and Schmittgen, T.D. (2001) Analysis of Relative Gene Expression Data Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR and the 2-ΔΔCT Method. Methods, 25, 402-408.
[34] Allen, K.D. and Athanasiou, K.A. (2008) Scaffold and growth factor selection in temporomandibular joint disc engineering. Journal of Dental Research, 87, 180-185.
[35] Freed, L.E., Vunjak-Novakovic, G., Biron, R.J., Eagles, D.B., Lesnoy, D.C., Barlow, S.K. and Langer, R. (1994) Biodegradable polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering. Bio-Technology, 12, 689-693.
[36] Kang, Y., Yang, J., Khan, S., Anissian, L. and Ameer, G.A. (2006) A new biodegradable polyester elastomer for cartilage tissue engineering. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A, 77, 331-339.
[37] Yang, F., Qu, X., Cui, W., Bei, J., Yu, F., Lu, S. and Wang, S. (2006) Manufacturing and morphology structure of polylactide-type microtubules orientation-structured scaf- folds. Biomaterials, 27, 4923-4933.
[38] Rotter, N., Aigner, J., Naumann, A., Planck, H., Hammer, C., Burmester, G. and Sittinger, M. (1998) Cartilage reconstruction in head and neck surgery, comparison of resorbable polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering of human septal cartilage. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 42, 347-356.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.