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Influence of Anthropogenic Activities of Groundwater from Hand Dug Wells within the Precarious Settlements of Southern Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire: Case of the Slums of Anoumabo (Marcory) and Adjouffou (Port-Bouët)

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DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.54042    3,347 Downloads   5,845 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This study aims to examine the quality and quantity of the groundwater resources from hand-dug wells, within two of these slums—Anoumabo (Marcory) and Adjouffou (Port-Bouet), both located in the southern part of the city. Twenty-eight representative groundwater samples were collected from different domestic wells within the study area. In addition, water samples were collected from the adjoining surface water bodies—the ébrié lagoon and the Atlantic Ocean. The water samples were also tested for microbial indicators of fecal contamination using the conventional membrane filtration method. The groundwater samples are alkaline to acidic with pH ranging between 4.4 and 8.1. They are slightly mineralized with electrical conductivity, EC values ranging between 388 μS/cm and 1494 μS/cm. The dominant hydrochemical facies are Na-Cl, Na-SO4, Ca-Cl and Ca-SO4. Although, majority of the water samples have anions and cations concentrations conforming to the World Health Organization, alerting levels of nitrate contamination was recorded in the area. About 67 percent of the tested samples have nitrate values greater than the recommended WHO limit for drinking water (NO3 > 50 mg/ι). Exceeding high nitrate concentrations in drinking water have been medically proven to be detrimental to infant health. Microbial analyses reveal bacterial contamination at varying degrees in all of the water wells. The presence of these microbial organisms in the samples is also indicative of the presence of some other disease causing pathogens, responsible for sicknesses like cholera, diarrhea, typhoid, etc. The water wells located within Anoumabo have relatively higher levels of groundwater contaminants in comparison to those located within Adjouffou. This is obviously due to the poor well designs and prevalent unhygienic and poor sanitary habits of its inhabitants. These waters though completely unsuitable for drinking and domestic purposes, can be used for irrigation purposes with very little or no sodium problems.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

I. Osemwegie, Y. Oga, K. Ahoussi, Y. Koffi, A. Kouassi and J. Biémi, "Influence of Anthropogenic Activities of Groundwater from Hand Dug Wells within the Precarious Settlements of Southern Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire: Case of the Slums of Anoumabo (Marcory) and Adjouffou (Port-Bouët)," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 5 No. 4, 2013, pp. 427-439. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.54042.

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