Assessing Reactions of Genetically Improved and Local Cassava Varieties to Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) Infection in a Savannah Region of the DR-Congo
Marcel Muengula-Manyi, Lyna Mukwa, Kabwe K. Nkongolo, Patrick Tshilenge-Djim, Stephan Winter, Claude Bragard, Adrien Kalonji-Mbuyi
1Unit of Phytopathology, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
Department of Biology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
Earth and Life Institute, Applied Microbiology-Phytopathology, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
Plant Clinic of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
Plant Virus Collection, DSMZ Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkuturen GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany.
Regional Nuclear Energy Center, Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
Unit of Phytopathology, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.44101   PDF    HTML   XML   4,551 Downloads   7,229 Views   Citations


The responses of eight genetically improved and eight local cassava varieties to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) were evaluated under field conditions at two sites, in Eastern Kasa?, region of the DR-Congo). The varieties were planted using randomized complete block design with three replications. The rate of cuttings sprouted varied significantly from variety to variety and from location to location. Local varieties were severely infected than improved varieties throughout the trial period. In general, the level of CMD incidence for genetically improved varieties was below 15% while it reached 100% for the local cassava varieties six months after planting (MAP). This trend was also observed for the CMD severity and gravity. The mean scores for CMD severity were 2 and 3.6 for genetically improved and local varieties, respectively at 6 MAP. CMD gravity for improved varieties was below 21% for genetically improved varieties and exceeded 85% for local varieties at the end of trials. Area Under the Severity index Progress Curve (AUSiPC) and Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) estimates confirmed that improved varieties were moderately infested comparatively to local varieties. Molecular analysis is being conducted to determine the genetic variability and complexity of the cassava mosaic virus strains involved.

Share and Cite:

M. Muengula-Manyi, L. Mukwa, K. Nkongolo, P. Tshilenge-Djim, S. Winter, C. Bragard and A. Kalonji-Mbuyi, "Assessing Reactions of Genetically Improved and Local Cassava Varieties to Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) Infection in a Savannah Region of the DR-Congo," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2013, pp. 824-837. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.44101.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. P. Legg, “Emergence, Spread and Strategies for Controlling the Pandemic of Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease in East and Central Africa,” Crop Protection, Vol. 18, No. 10, 1999, pp. 627-637. doi:10.1016/S0261-2194(99)00062-9
[2] O. A. Ariyo, A. G. O. Dixon and G. I. Atiri, “Effect of Detopping on Disease Incidence and Symptom Severity of African Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease (ACMD) on Some Newly Developed Cassava Cultivars from Land-races Introgression,” Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, Vol. 38, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 115-124. doi:10.1556/APhyt.38.2003.1-2.14
[3] J. P. Legg and B. Owor, “Cassava Mosaic Disease in Africa: Where Are the Epidemics?” Africa Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Vol. 6, 2003, pp. 322-328.
[4] G. N. Ssemakula, W. S. Sserubombwe, A. Bua, J. Jagwe, R. S. B. Ferris and J. B. A. Whyte, “Constraints and Potential for Cassava Commercialisation in Uganda,” Proceedings of Regional Workshop on Improving the Cassava Sub-Sector, Nairobi, April 2002, pp. 57-60.
[5] J. P. Legg and C. M. Fauquet, “Cassava Mosaic Geminiviruses in Africa,” Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 56, 2004, pp. 585-599. doi:10.1007/s11103-004-1651-7
[6] H. M. A. Bi and P. Zhang, “Evaluation of Cassava Varieties for Cassava Mosaic Disease Resistance Jointly by Agro-Inoculation Screening and Molecular Markers,” African Journal of Plant Science, Vol. 4, No. 9, 2010, pp. 330-338.
[7] M. Muengula-Manyi, K. K. Nkongolo, C. Bragard, P. Tshilenge-Djim, S. Winter and A. Kalonji-Mbuyi, “Incidence, Severity and Gravity of Cassava Mosaic Disease in Savannah Agro-Ecological Region of DR-Congo: Analysis of Agro-Environmental Factors,” American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 3, 2012, pp. 512-519.
[8] F. O. Ogbe, A. G. O. Dixon, J. d’A. Hughes, O. J. Alabi and R. Okechukwu, “Status of Cassava Begomoviruses and Their Natural Hosts in Nigeria,” Plant Disease, Vol. 90, No. 5, 2006, pp. 548-553. doi:10.1094/PD-90-0548
[9] J. P. Legg and J. M. Thresh, “Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease in East Africa: A Dynamic Disease in a Changing Environment,” Virus Research, Vol. 71, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 135-149. doi:10.1016/S0168-1702(00)00194-5
[10] C. N. Egesi, F. O. Ogbe, M. Akoroda, P. Ilona and A. Dixon, “Resistance Profile of Improved Cassava Germ- plasm to Cassava Mosaic Disease in Nigeria,” Euphytica, Vol. 155, 2007, pp. 215-224. doi:10.1007/s10681-006-9323-0
[11] J. P. Legg, B. Owor, P. Sseruwagi and J. Ndunguru, “Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease in East and Central Africa: Epidemiology and Management of a Regional Pandemic,” Advances in Virus Research, Vol. 67, 2006, pp. 355-418. doi:10.1016/S0065-3527(06)67010-3
[12] S. K. Hahn, E. R. Terry and K. Leuschner, “Breeding Cassava for Resistance to Cassava Mosaic Disease,” Euphytica, Vol. 29, 1980, pp. 673-683. doi:10.1007/BF00023215
[13] E. R. Terry and S. K. Hahn, “The Effect of Cassava Mosaic Disease on Growth and Yield of a Local and an Improved Variety of Cassava,” Tropical Pest Management, Vol. 26, 1980, pp. 34-37. doi:10.1080/09670878009414280
[14] G. Shaner and R. E. Finney, “The Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Expression of Slow-Mildewing Resistance in Knox Wheat,” Phytopathology, Vol. 67, 1977, pp. 1051-1056. doi:10.1094/Phyto-67-1051
[15] P. Legendre and L. Legendre, “Numerical Ecology,” 2nd Edition, Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, 1998.
[16] G. W. Otim-Nape, “The Epidemiology of the African Cassava Mosaic Geminivirus Disease in Uganda,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Reading, Reading, 1993, 255 p.
[17] F. I. Nweke, “Farm Level Practices Relevant to Cassava Plant Protection,” African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1994, pp. 563-581.
[18] I. Zinga, C. R. Nguimalet, D. P. Lakouetene, G. Konate, E. Kosh Komba and S. Semballa, “The Impacts of African Cassava Mosaic in Central African Republic,” Geo- Eco-Trop, Vol. 32, 2008, pp. 47-60.
[19] J. Adriko, W. S. Sserubombwe, E. Adipala, A. Bua and R. Edema, “Response of Local Cassava Varieties in Uganda to Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease,” American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012, pp. 111- 132.
[20] C. Fauquet and D. Fargette, “African Cassava Mosaic Virus: Etiology, Epidemiology, and Control,” Plant Disease, Vol. 74, No. 6, 1990, pp. 404-411. doi:10.1094/PD-74-0404
[21] I. Abdullahi, G. I. Atiri, A. G. O. Dixon, S. Winter and G. Thottappily, “Effects of Cassava Genotype, Climate and the Bemisia tabaci Vector Population on the Development of African Cassava Mosaic Geminivirus (ACMV),” Acta Agronomica Hungarica, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2003, pp. 37-46. doi:10.1556/AAgr.51.2003.1.5
[22] A. Banito, K. E. Kpemoua and K. Wydra, “Expression of Resistance and Tolerance of Cassava Genotypes to Bacterial Blight Determined by Genotype × Environment Interactions,” Journal of Plant Disease and Protection, Vol. 115, No. 4, 2008, pp. 152-161.
[23] M. Muengula-Manyi, K. K. Nkongolo, C. Bragard, P. Tshilenge-Djim, S. Winter and A. Kalonji-Mbuyi, “Effect of NPK Fertilization on Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) Expression in a Sub-Saharan Africa Region,” American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2012, pp. 336-350.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.