Electrical Conductivity, Magnetoconductivity and Dielectric Behaviour of (Mg,Ni)-Ferrite below Room Temperature

DOI: 10.4236/msa.2010.14028   PDF   HTML     5,065 Downloads   10,604 Views   Citations


We report a comprehensive study of electrical transport properties of stoichiometric (Mg,Ni)-ferrite in the temperature range 77 ≤ T ≤ 300K, applying magnetic field upto 1T in the frequency range 20 Hz-1 MHz. After ball milling of MgO, NiO and ?-Fe2O3 and annealing at 1473K, a (Mg,Ni)-ferrite phase is obtained. The temperature dependency of dc resistivity indicates the prevalence of a simple hopping type charge transport in all the investigated samples. The activation energy decreases by annealing the samples by 1473K. The dc magnetoresistivity of the samples is positive, which has been explained by using wave function shrinkage model. The frequency dependence of conductivity has been described by power law and the frequency exponent ‘s’ is found to be anomalous temperature dependent for ball milling and annealing samples. The real part of the dielectric permittivity at a fixed frequency was found to follow the power law ?/(f,T) ? Tn. The magnitude of the temperature exponent ‘n’ strongly depends on milling time and also on annealing temperature. The dielectric permittivity increases with milling and also with annealing. An analysis of the complex impedance by an ideal equivalent circuit indicates that the grain boundary contribution is dominating over the grain contribution in conduction process.

Share and Cite:

S. Ghatak, A. Meikap, M. Sinha and S. Pradhan, "Electrical Conductivity, Magnetoconductivity and Dielectric Behaviour of (Mg,Ni)-Ferrite below Room Temperature," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 1 No. 4, 2010, pp. 177-186. doi: 10.4236/msa.2010.14028.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] I. Anton., I. D. Dabata and L. Vekas, “Application Orientated Researches on Magnetic Fluids,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 85, No. 1-3, 1990, pp. 219-226.
[2] R. D. McMickael, R. D. Shull, L. J. Swartzen-druber, L. H. Bennett and R. E. Watson, “Magnetocaloric Effect in Superparamagnets,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 111, No. 1-2, 1992, pp. 29-33.
[3] D. L. Leslie-Pelecky and R. D. Rieke,” Magnetic Properties of Nanostructures Materials,” Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 8, No. 8, 1996, pp. 1770-1783.
[4] T. Hirai, J. Kobayashi and I. Koasawa, “Preparation of Acicular Ferrite Fine particles Using an Emulsion Liquid Membrane System,” Langmuir, Vol. 15, No. 19, 1999, pp. 6291-6298.
[5] R. H. Kodama, “Magnetic Nanoparticles,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 200, No. 1-3, 1999, pp. 359-372.
[6] K. V. P. M. Shafi, Y. Koltypin, A. Gedanken, R. Prozorov, J. Balogh, J. Lendvai and I. Felner, “Sonochemical Preparation of Nanosized Amor-phous NiFe2O4 Particles,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 101, No. 33, 1996, pp. 6409-6414.
[7] D. Niznansky, M. Drillon and J. L. Renspinger, “Preparation of Magnetic Nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3) in the Silica Matrix,” IEEE Transaction on Magnetics, Vol. 30, No. 2, 1994, pp. 821- 823.
[8] J. M. Yang, W. J. Tsuo and F. S. J. Yen, “Preparation of Ultrafine Nickel Ferrite Powder Using Ni and Fe Tartrates,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Vol. 145, No. 1, 1999, pp. 50-57.
[9] Y. Shi, J. Ding, X. Liu and J. Wang, “NiFe2O4 Ultrafine Particles Prepared by Co-Precipitation/Mechanical Alloying,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 205, No. 2-3, 1999, pp. 249-254.
[10] P. Druska, U. Steinike and V. Sepelak, “Surface Structure of Mechanically Activated and of Mechanosynthesized Zinc Ferrite,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Vol. 146, No. 1, 1999, pp. 13-21.
[11] V. Sepelak, K. Tkacova, V. V. Boldyrev and U. Steinike, “Crystal Srtucture Refinement of the Mechanically Activated Spinel-Ferrite,” Materials Science Forum, Vol. 228-231, 1996, pp. 783-788.
[12] V. Sepelak, A. Yu, U. Rogachev, D. Steinike, C. Uecker, S. Wibmann and K. D. Becker, “Structure of Nanocrystalline Spinel Ferrite Produced by High Energy Ballmilling Method,” Acta Crystallographica A, Suppl. Issue, Vol. A 52, 1996, p. C367
[13] V. Sepelak, A. Yu, U. Rogachev, D. Steinike, C. Uecker, F. Krumcich, S .Wibmann and K. D. Becker, “The Synthesis and Structure of Nanocrystalline Spinel Ferrite Produced by High Energy Ball-Milling Method,” Materials Science Forum, Vol. 235-238, 1997, pp. 139-144.
[14] V. Sepelak, U. Steinike, D. C. Uecker, S. Wib-mann and K. D. Becker, “Structural Disorder in Mechanosyn-thesized by Zinc Ferrite,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Vol. 135, No. 1, 1998, pp. 52-58.
[15] H. M. Rietveld, “Line Profile of Neutron Powder Diffraction Peaks for Structure Refinement,” Acta Crystallographica, Vol. 22, 1967, pp. 151-152.
[16] H. M. Rietveld, “A Profile Refinement Method for Nuclear and Magnetic Structures,” Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol. 2, 1969, pp. 65-71.
[17] R. A. Young, “The Rietveld Method,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996.
[18] L. Lutterotti, P. Scardi and P. Maistrelli, “LSI-a Computer Program for Simultaneous Refinement of Material Structure and Microstructure,” Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1992, pp. 459-462.
[19] L. Lutterotti, “MAUD Version 2.046.” http://www.ing. unitn. it/~luttero/maud
[20] W. D. Kingery, H. K. Bowen and D. R. Uhlmann, “Introduction to Ceramics,” 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1976.
[21] B. I. Shklovskii, “Positive Magnetoresistance in the Variable Range Hopping Conduction Regimes,” Soviet Physics Semiconductors, Vol. 17, 1983, p. 1311.
[22] B. I. Shklovskii and A. L. Efros, “Electronic Properties of Doped Semiconductors,” Springer, Berlin, 1994.
[23] V. L. Nguyen, B. Z. Spivak and B. I. Shklovskii, “Tunnel Hops in Disordered Systems,” Soviet Physics-JETP, Vol. 62, 1985, p. 1021.
[24] U. Sivan, O. Entin-Wohiman and O. Imry, “Orbital Magnetoconduction in the Variable-Range-Hopping Regime,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 60, No. 15, 1988, pp. 1566-1569.
[25] R. Rosenbaum, A. Milner, S. Hannens, T. Murphy, E. Palm and B. Brandt, “Magnetoresistance of an Insulating Amorphous Nickel-Silicon Film in Large Magnetic Fields,” Physica B, Vol. 294-295, 2001, pp. 340-346.
[26] M. S. Fuhrer, W. Holmes, P. L. Richards, P. Delaney, S. G. Louie and A. Zettl, “Nonlinear Transport and Localization in Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Synthetic Metals, Vol. 103, No. 1-3,1999, pp. 2529-2532.
[27] Y. Yosida and I. Oguro, “Variable Range Hopping Conduction in Bulk Samples Composed of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 86, No. 2, 1999, pp. 999-1003.
[28] N. F. Mott and E. Davis, “Electronic Process in Noncrystalline Materials,” 2nd Edition, Clarendon, Clarendo, 1997.
[29] A. R. Long, “Frequency-Dependent Lossin Amorphous Semi-Conductors,” Advances in Physics, Vol. 31, No. 5, 1982, pp. 553-637.
[30] S. R. Elliott,” A.c. Conduction in Amorphous Chalcogenide and Pnictide Semiconductors,” Advances in Physics, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1987, pp. 135-217.
[31] A. L. Efros, “On the Theory of a.c. Conduction in Amorphous Semiconductors and Chalcogenide Glasses,” Philosophical Magazine B, Vol. 43, No. 5, 1981, pp. 829-838.
[32] M. Ghosh, A. Barman, S. K. De and S. Chatterjee, “Transport Properties of Hcl Doped Polyaniline and Polyaniline-Methyl Cellulose Dispersion,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 84, No. 2, 1998, pp. 806-811.
[33] B. G. Soares, M. E. Leyva, G. M. O. Barra and D. Khastgir, “Dielectric Behaviour of Polyaniline Synthesized by Different Techniques,” European Polymer Journal, Vol. 42, No. 3, 2006, pp. 676-686.
[34] S. S. Suryavanshi, S. R. Patil, S. A. Patil and S. R. Sawant, “d.c. Conductivity and dielectric Behaviour of Ti4+ Substituted Mg-Zn Ferrites,” Journal of the Less-Common Metals, Vol. 168, No. 2, 1991, pp. 169-174..
[35] J. C. Maxwell, “A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism,” Vol. 1, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1988.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.