Characterization of Egyptian Manganese Ores for Production of High Carbon Ferromanganese


This work aims at studying the reactivity of Egyptian manganese ores to be used in the production of ferromanganese alloys in submerged electric arc furnace. Ores with different manganese content (high-medium and low) were selected and characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The main mineralogical compositions in the three ores are pyrolusite (MnO2) and hematite (Fe2O3). Porosity of selected Mn ores was determined. The reactivity of the different ores was carried out through pre-reduction of the selected ores using thermobalance at 900°C and 1100°C and mixture of CO and CO2 gases. The reduction process was done until steady weight. The reduced ores were examined using XRD and SEM. The results showed that pyrolusite in high and medium ores are converted completely to MnO at 1100°C. However, the ore with low manganese content was converted to MnO and Mn3O4. Consequently, it is clear from the results that Mn ores with high and medium MnO2 content are more reactive than those with low MnO2. Therefore, high MnO2 content Mn ores are preferable to get good economic impact during the production of high carbon ferromanganese.


Share and Cite:

M. Fahim, H. El Faramawy, A. Ahmed, S. Ghali and A. Kandil, "Characterization of Egyptian Manganese Ores for Production of High Carbon Ferromanganese," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 1 No. 2, 2013, pp. 68-74. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2013.12013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] G. Pochart, L. Joncourt, N. Touchard and C. Perdon, “Metallurgical Benefit Of Reactive High Grade Ore in Manganese Alloys Manufacturing,” INFACON XI, 2007, pp. 217-230.
[2] A.-Z. M. Abouzeid1 and A.-A. M. Khalid, “Mineral Industry in Egypt-Part I: Metallic Mineral Commodities,” Natural Resources, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2011, pp. 35-53. doi:10.4236/nr.2011.21006
[3] E. C. Vanderstaay, D. R. Swinbourne and M. Monteiro, “A Computational Thermodynamics Model of Submerged Arc Electric Furnace Ferromanganese Smelting,” Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, Vol. 113, No. 1, 2004, pp. 38-44. doi:10.1179/037195504225004706
[4] M. Tangstad, S. Wasb and R. Tronstad, “Kinetics of the Pre-reduction of Manganese Ores,” INFACON 9, Quebec City, 2001.
[5] M. Tangstad and S. Olsen, “The Ferromanganese Process —Material and Energy Balance,” INFACON 7, Trondheim, 1995, pp. 621-630.
[6] M. Tangstad P. Calvert, H. Brun1 and A. G. Lindseth, “Use of Comilog Ore in Ferromanganese Production,” Proceedings of Tenth International Ferroalloys Congress, Cape Town, 1-4 February 2004, pp. 213-222.
[7] K. L. Berg, “Gaseous Reduction of Manganese Ores,” Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Information Technology, Mathematics and Electrical Engineering, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 1998, p. 72.
[8] A. A. El-Geassy, M. I. Nasr, A. A. Omar and E. A. Mousa, “Isothermal Reduction Behavior of MnO2 Doped Fe2O3 Compacts with H2 at 1073 - 1373 K,” Ironmaking and Steelmaking, Vol. 35, No. 7, 2008 pp. 531-538. doi:10.1179/174328108X58532
[9] R. Ishak and M. Tangstad, “Degree of Prereduction without Coke Consumption in Industrial Furnaces,” INFACON XI, 2007, pp. 268-279.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.