The Effect of Climate on the Chemical Composition of the Coral Reefs around Kubbar Island—Kuwait


Thick recent carbonate sediments cover all the intertidal and subtidal zones consist of mainly different shell and coral reef debris. The chemical investigations of the coral fragments were done on controlled bases, which depend on the coral size and seasons, in order to elucidate the effect of weather parameters on the coral reefs. Geochemical investigation indicated that corals gathered from high-tide mark are mainly contaminated by copper, cobalt, and chromium and the corals gathered from low-tide mark are contaminated by lead and zinc. All the analyzed coral samples are contaminated by copper. The major contamination sights by heavy metals are related to the weather pattern around the islands. Calcium concentration in all the corals indicates a low-Magnesium calcite or aragonite composition, except for some coral samples which were gathered during October from the high-tide mark. Trace element concentration levels show high concentrations at sights of low-wave action around the island during the various seasons. Chemical analysis on the coral derbies indicates compositional variations regarding calcium and magnesium mole% between the seasons and at different locations and it is dependant on wind direction and water salinity. Some localities are iron rich others are aluminum and potassium rich. Generally, aluminum, iron, and potassium occur in lower quantities than the other elements. Therefore, all the chemical data regarding trace elements indicate relationship to weather and environmental parameters.

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A. Al-Langawi, "The Effect of Climate on the Chemical Composition of the Coral Reefs around Kubbar Island—Kuwait," International Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 511-528. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2013.42047.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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