Microbial Adhesion on Orthodontic Ligating Materials: An in Vitro Assessment

DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.31017   PDF   HTML   XML   3,799 Downloads   6,674 Views   Citations


Orthodontic fixed appliance therapy is the commonest mode of treatment for most types of malocclusions (teeth irregularities). However, these materials are liable for microbial adhesion, which predisposes the wearer to increased microbial burden. The present study aims to evaluate, microbial adhesion and growth on commonly used orthodontic ligating materials (Teflon coated wire, stainless steel wire, elastic rings) under in vitro condition. Furthermore, the role of saliva on adhesion and microbial colonization on said materials was also assessed. Experiments were conducted with three different orthodontic ligating materials each in 6 numbers. Growth OD, metabolic activity and cell viability were the experimental variables in addition to SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) analysis performed. Results revealed irespective of the nature of the ligating materials, microbial adhesion and growth were observed in all the materials and suggested that the chosen materials promotes microbial adhesion. Nevertheless, stainless steel ligatures were less prone to adhesion compared to Teflon coated and elastic ligatures. Presence of saliva accelerates adhesion and growth.

Share and Cite:

P. Harikrishnan, T. Subha, V. Kavitha and A. Gnanamani, "Microbial Adhesion on Orthodontic Ligating Materials: An in Vitro Assessment," Advances in Microbiology, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2013, pp. 108-114. doi: 10.4236/aim.2013.31017.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] A. F. Magno, C. Enoki, I. Y. Ito, M. A. Matsumoto, G. Faria and P. Nelson-Filho, “In Vivo Evaluation of the Contamination of Super Slick Elastomeric Rings by Streptococci mutans in Orthodontic Patients,” American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, Vol. 133, No. 4, 2008, pp. S104-S109. doi:10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.04.054
[2] G. S. Baillie and L. J. Douglas, “Effect of Growth Rate on Resistance of Candida albicans Biofilms to Antifungal Agents,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 42, No. 8, 1998, pp. 1900-1905.
[3] M. A. Al-Fattani and L. J. Douglas, “Penetration of Candida Biofilms by Antifungal Agents,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 48, No. 9, 2004, pp. 3291-3297. doi:10.1128/AAC.48.9.3291-3297.2004
[4] D. Davies and A. Begole, “Compliance with Infection Control Procedures among Illinois Orthodontists,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Vol. 113, No. 6, 1998, pp. 647-654.
[5] W. Sukontapatipark, M. A. El-Agroudi, N. J. Selliseth, K. Thunold and K. A. Selvig, “Bacterial Colonization Associated with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances-A SEM Study,” European Journal of Orthodontics, Vol. 23, No. 5, 1998, pp. 475-484. doi:10.1093/ejo/23.5.475
[6] M. G. Azmi and N. Al-Jasser, “The Effect of Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Therapy on Oral Candida Carriage,” Saudi Dental Journal, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2003, pp. 141-144.
[7] U. Hagg, P. Kaveewatcharanont, Y. H. Samaranayake and L. P. Smaranayake, “The Effect of Fixed Orthodontic Appliances on the Oral Carriage of Candida Species and Enterobacteriaceae,” European Journal of Orthodontics, Vol. 26, No. 6, 2004, pp. 623-629. doi:10.1093/ejo/26.6.623
[8] R. J. Gibbon, “Bacterial Adhesion to Oral Tissues: A Model for Infectious Diseases,” Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 68, No. 5, 1989, pp. 750-760. doi:10.1177/00220345890680050101
[9] L. A. Tabak and W. H. Bowen, “Roles of Saliva (Pellicle), Diet and Nutrition on Plaque Formation,” Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 68, 1989, pp. 1560-1566.
[10] S. J. Lee, H. S. Kho, S. W. Lee and W. S. Yang, “Experimental Salivary Pellicles on the Surface of Orthodontic Materials,” American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, Vol. 119, No. 1, 2001, pp. 59-66. doi:10.1067/mod.2001.110583
[11] K. Kitada, A. De Toledo and T. Oho, “Increase in Detectable Opportunistic Bacteria in the Oral Cavity of Orthodontic Patients,” International Journal of Dental Hygiene, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2009, pp. 121-125. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5037.2008.00333.x
[12] N. E. Atack, J. R. Sandy and M. Addy, “Periodontal and Microbiological Changes Associated with the Placement of Orthodontic Appliances—A Review,” Journal of Periodontology, Vol. 67, No. 2, 1996, pp. 78-85. doi:10.1902/jop.1996.67.2.78
[13] R. D. Cannon and W. L. Chaffin, “Oral Colonization by Candida albicans,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1999, pp. 359-383. doi:10.1177/10454411990100030701
[14] D. Bialaisiewicz, A. Kurnatowska and G. Smiech-Slomkowska, “Characteristics of Fungi and Attempts of Their Elimination from the Oral Cavity in Children Treated with Orthodontic Appliances,” Medycyna Doswiadczalna i Mikrobiologia, Vol. 45, No. 3, 1993, pp. 389-392.
[15] V. M. Jewtuchowics, M. I. Brusca, M. T. Mujica, L. A. Gliosca, J. L. Finquelievich, C. A. Lovannitti and A. C. Rosa, “Subgingival Distribution of Yeast and Their Antifungal Susceptibility in Immunocompetent Subjects with and without Dental Devices,” Acta Odontologica Latinoamericana, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2007, pp. 17-22.
[16] S. G. Arslan, N. Akpolat, J. D. Kama, T. Ozer and O. Hamamci, “One Year Follow Up of the Effect of Fixed Orthodontic Treatment on Colonization by Oral Candida,” Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2008, pp. 26-29. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0714.2007.00574.x
[17] E. Budtz-Jorgensen, “Candida Associated Denture Stomatitis and Angular Cheilitis,” In: L. P. Samaranayake and T. W. Macfarlane, Eds., Oral Candidiasis, Wright, London, 1990, pp. 156-183.
[18] K. Hibino, R. W. Wong, U. Hagg and L. P. Samaranayake, “The Effects of Orthodontic Appliances on Candida in the Human Mouth,” International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, Vol. 19, No. 5, 2009, pp. 301-308. doi:10.1111/j.1365-263X.2009.00988.x
[19] G. Ramage, S. P. Saville, D. P. Thomas, J. L. LopezRibot, “Candida Biofilms: An Update,” Eukaryot Cell, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2005, pp. 633-638. doi:10.1128/EC.4.4.633-638.2005
[20] Y. Jin, L. P. Samaranayake, Y. Samaranayake and H. K. Yip, “Biofilm Formation of Candida albicans Is Variably Affected by Saliva and Dietary Sugars,” Archives of Oral Biology, Vol. 49, No. 10, 2004, pp. 789-798. doi:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2004.04.011
[21] J. J. Bozzola and L. D. Russel, “Electron Microscopy: Principles and Techniques for Biologists,” Jones & Bartlett Learning, Burlington, 1999.
[22] R. L. Sandin, A. L. Rogers, M. I. Fernandezs and E. S. Benekev, “Variations in Affinity to Candida albicans in Vitro among Human Buccal Epithelial Cells,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1987, pp. 151-155. doi:10.1099/00222615-24-2-151
[23] M. I. Brusca, O. Chara, L. Sterin-Borda and A. C. Rosa, “Influence of Different Orthodontic Brackets on Adherence of Microorganisms in Vitro,” The Angle Orthodontist, Vol. 77, No. 2, 2007, pp. 331-336. doi:10.2319/0003-3219(2007)077[0331:IODOBO]2.0.CO;2
[24] M. Addy, W. C. Shaw, P. Handsford and M. Hopkins, “The Effect of Orthodontic Appliances on the Distribution of Candida and Plaque in Adolescents,” British Journal of Orthodology, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1982, pp. 158-163.
[25] G. Tronchin, J. P. Bouchara, R. Robert and J. M. Senet, “Adherence of Candida albicans Germ Tubes to Plastic: Ultrastructural and Molecular Studies of Fibrillar Adhesions,” Infection and Immunity, Vol. 56, No. 8, 1988, pp. 1987-1993.
[26] J. E. Cutler, “Putative Virulence Factor of C. albicans,” Annual Review of Microbiology, Vol. 45, 1991, pp. 187-218. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi.45.100191.001155
[27] J. W. Rippon, “Candidiasis and the Pathogenic Yeasts,” In: J. W. Rippon, Ed., Medical Mycology, The Pathogenic Fungi and the Pathogenic Actinomycetes, W B Saunders, Philadelphia, 1982, pp. 484-531.
[28] J. Bagg and R. W. Silverwood, “Coagglutination Reactions between Candida albicans and Oral Bacteria,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1986, pp. 165-169. doi:10.1099/00222615-22-2-165
[29] R. L. Price, K. Ellison, K. M. Haberstroh and T. J. Webster, “Nanometer Surface Roughness Increases Select Osteoblast Adhesion on Carbon Nanofiber Compacts,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, Vol. 70A, No. 1, 2004, pp. 129-138. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.30073
[30] A. Faltermeier, R. Bürgers and M. Rosentritt, “Bacterial Adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to Esthetic Bracket Materials,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Vol. 133, No. 4, 2008, pp. S99-S103. doi:10.1016/j.ajodo.2007.03.024
[31] M. W. J. Dodds, D. A. Johnson and C. Yeh, “Health Benefits of Saliva: A Review,” Journal of Dentistry, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2005, pp. 223-233. doi:10.1016/j.jdent.2004.10.009
[32] K. G. Skerl, E. Segal, T. Sreevalsan and W. M. Scheld, “In Vitro Binding of Candida albicans Yeast Cells to Human Fibronectin,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 30, No. 2, 1984, pp. 221-227. doi:10.1139/m84-033
[33] J. M. O’Sullivan, R. D. Cannon, P. A. Sullivan and H. F. Jenkinson, “Identification of Salivary Basic Proline-Rich Proteins as Receptors for Candida albicans Adhesion,” Microbiol, Vol. 143, No. 2, 1997, pp. 341-348. doi:10.1099/00221287-143-2-341
[34] C. Gyurko, U. Lendenmann, R. F. Troxler and F. G. Oppenheim, “Candida albicans Mutants Deficient in Respiration Are Resistant to the Small Cationic Salivary Antimicrobial Peptide Histatin 5,” Antimicrobiol Agents Chemother, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2000, pp. 348-354. doi:10.1128/AAC.44.2.348-354.2000
[35] R. S. Millan, N. Elguezabal, P. Regulez, M. D. Moragues, G. Quindos and J. Ponton, “Effect of Salivary Secretary IgA on the Adhesion of Candida albicans to Polystyrene,” Microbiology, Vol. 146, 2000, pp. 2105-2112.
[36] Y. H. Samaranayake, L. P. Samaranayake, E. H. Pow, V. T. Beena and K. W. Yeung, “Antifungal Effects of Lysozyme and Lactoferrin against Genetically Similar, Sequential Candida albicans Isolates from a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Southern Chinese Cohort,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol. 39, No. 9, 2001, pp. 3296-3302. doi:10.1128/JCM.39.9.3296-3302.2001
[37] C. M. Forsberg, V. Brattstrom, E. Malmberg and C. E. Nord, “Ligature Wires and Elastomeric Rings: Two Methods of Ligation and Their Association with Microbial Colonization of Streptococci mutans and Lactobacilli,” European Journal of Orthodontics, Vol. 13, No. 5, 1991, pp. 416-420. doi:10.1093/ejo/13.5.416

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.