Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Vegetable Oil Assisted by Co-Solvent and Microwave Using a Two-Step Process

DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.31001   PDF   HTML   XML   4,541 Downloads   8,493 Views   Citations


The two-step catalyzing process for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil was assisted by both co-solvent and microwave irradiation. Central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the reaction conditions. Optimal reaction conditions of the first step were alcohol to oil molar ratio of 9:1, catalyst (H2SO4) amount 1 wt%, reaction temperature 333 K, and reaction time 7.5 minutes; while for the second step, optimal reaction conditions were alcohol to oil molar ratio 12:1, catalyst (NaOH) amount 1 wt%, reaction temperature 333 K, and reaction time 2.0 minutes. The total reaction time was 9.5 min and the conversion rate of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) achieved was 97.4%. The total reaction time was shorter than previous studies. Therefore, the co-solvent and microwave assisted two-step catalyzing process has a potential application in producing biodiesel from waste vegetable oil.

Share and Cite:

Lin, C. and Hsiao, M. (2013) Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Vegetable Oil Assisted by Co-Solvent and Microwave Using a Two-Step Process. Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, 3, 1-6. doi: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.31001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] D. E. Lopez, J. G. Goodwin Jr., D. A. Bruce and E. Lotero, “Transesterification of Triacetin with Alcohol on Solid Acid and Base Catalysts,” Applied Catalysis A: General, Vol. 295, No. 2, 2005, pp. 97-105. doi:10.1016/j.apcata.2005.07.055
[2] Y. Zhang, M. A. Dube, D. D. McLean and M. Kates, “Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil: 1. Process Design and Technological Assessment,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 89, No. 1, 2003, pp. 1-16. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(03)00040-3
[3] J. M. Marchetti, V. U. Miguel and A. F. Errazu, “Heterogeneous Esterification of Oil with High Amount of Free Fatty Acids,” Fuel, Vol. 86, No. 5, 2007, pp. 906-910. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2006.09.006
[4] H. Fukuda, A. Kondo and H. Noda, “Biodiesel Fuel Production by Transesterification of Oils,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Vol. 92, No. 5, 2001, pp. 405-416.
[5] X. Yuan, J. Liu, G. Zeng, J. Shi, J. Tong and G. Huang, “Optimization of Conversion of Waste Rapeseed Oil with High FFA to Biodiesel Using Response Surface Methodology,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 33, No. 7, 2007, pp. 1678-1684. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2007.09.007
[6] A. K. Singh, S. D. Fernando and R. Hernandez, “BaseCatalyzed Fast Transesterification of Soybean Oil Using Ultrasonication,” Energy & Fuels, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007, pp. 1161-1164. doi:10.1021/ef060507g
[7] S. Furuta, H. Matsuhashi and K. Arata, “Biodiesel Fuel Production with Solid Amorphous-Zirconia Catalysis in Fixed Bed Reactor,” Biomass & Bioenergy, Vol. 30, No. 10, 2006, pp. 870-873. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2005.10.010
[8] E. Lotero, T. Liu, D. E. Lopez, K. Suwannakarn, D. A. Bruce and J. G. Goodwin Jr., “Synthesis of Biodiesel via Acid Catalysis,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 44, No. 14, 2005, pp. 5353-5363. doi:10.1021/ie049157g
[9] S. V. Ghadge and H. Raheman, “Biodiesel Production from Mahua (Madhuca Indica) Oil Having High Free Fatty Acids,” Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 28, No. 6, 2005, pp. 601-605.
[10] N. Azcan and A. Danisman, “Alkali Catalyzed Transesterification of Cottonseed Oil by Microwave Irradiation,” Fuel, Vol. 86, No. 17, 2007, pp. 2639-2644. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2007.05.021
[11] N. Azcan and A. Danisman, “Microwave Assisted Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil,” Fuel, Vol. 87, No. 10, 2007, pp. 1781-1788. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2007.12.004
[12] D. G. B. Boocock, S. K. Konar and H. Sidi, “Phase Diagrams for Oil/Alcohol/Ether Mixtures,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 73, No. 10, 1996, pp. 1247-1251.
[13] M.-C. Hsiao, C.-C. Lin, Y.-H. Chang and L.-C. Chen, “Ultrasonic Mixing and Closed Microwave Irradiation Assisted Transesterification of Soybean Oil,” Fuel, Vol. 89, No. 12, 2010, pp. 3618-3622. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2010.07.044
[14] G. Vicente, M. Mart?nez and J. Aracil, “Integrated Biodiesel Production: A Comparison of Different Homogeneous Catalysts Systems,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 92, No. 3, 2004, pp. 297-305. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2003.08.014
[15] Y. Wang, S. Ou, P. Liu, F. Xue and S. Tang, “Comparison of Two Different Processes to Synthesize Biodiesel by Waste Cooking Oil,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, Vol. 252, No. 1, 2006, pp. 107-112. doi:10.1016/j.molcata.2006.02.047
[16] G. E. P. Box and N. R. Draper, “Empirical ModelBuilding and Response Surfaces,” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1986.
[17] D. C. Montgomery, “Design and Analysis of Experiments,” 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991.
[18] Y. Liu, L. Wang and Y. Yan, “Biodiesel synthesis Combining Pre-Esterification with Alkali Catalyzed Process Form Rapeseed Oil Deodorizer Distillate,” Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 90, No. 7, 2009, pp. 857-862. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2009.04.005
[19] X. Deng, Z. Fang and Y.-H. Liu, “Ultrasonic Transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. Oil to Biodiesel by a TwoStep Process,” Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 51, No. 12, 2010, pp. 2802-2807. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2010.06.017
[20] M. Canakci, “The Potential of Restaurant Waste Lipids as Biodiesel Feedstocks,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 98, No. 1, 2007, pp. 183-190. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2005.11.022

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.