Ultra Sensitive Determination and Preconcentration of Cd2+, Cu2+ and Pb2+ after Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Adsorption

DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2013.31002   PDF   HTML   XML   3,059 Downloads   5,829 Views   Citations


Multi-Walled carbon nanotubes are used as preconcentrating probes for the quantitative determination of trace cadmium, copper and lead in environmental and biological sample using graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and inductively coupled Plasma Optical Emission spectrometry. The method is based on the electrostatic interactions of positively charged Cd+, Cu+ and Pb+ with the negatively charged multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for the preconcentration and isolation of analytes from sample solutions. Effective preconcentration of trace cadmium, copper and lead was achieved in a pH range of 5 - 7, 5 - 7 and 4 - 7, respectively. The retained cadmium, copper and lead were efficiently eluted with 0.3 mol·L-1 HCl for graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry determination. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes packed micro-column exhibited fairly fast kinetics for the adsorption of cadmium, copper and lead, permitting the use of high sample flow rates up to at least 3 mL·min-1 for the flow injection on micro-column preconcentration without the loss of the retention efficiency. The detection limits (3σ) were 0.03, 0.01 and 0.5 ng·mL-1 for Cd, Cu and Pb, respectively. The relative standard deviation under optimum condition is less than 2.9% (n = 10). The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace Cd, Cu and Pb in a variety of environmental and biological samples.

Share and Cite:

A. Abdel-Lateef, R. Mohamed and H. Mahmoud, "Ultra Sensitive Determination and Preconcentration of Cd2+, Cu2+ and Pb2+ after Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Adsorption," Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2013, pp. 8-12. doi: 10.4236/jasmi.2013.31002.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] E. L. da Silva, E. M. Ganzarolli and E. Carasek, “Use of Nb2O5-SiO2 in an Automated On-Line Preconcentration System for Determination of Copper and Cadmium by FAAS,” Talanta, Vol. 62, No. 4, 2004, pp. 727-733. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2003.09.014
[2] M. Sperling, X.-P. Yan and B. Welz, “Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Lead in High-Purity Reagents with Flow-Injection On-Line Microcolumn Preconcentration and Separation Using a Macrocycle Immobilized Silica Gel Sorbent,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, Vol. 51, No. 14, 1996, pp. 1875-1889.
[3] E. Ballesteros, M. Gallego and M. Valcárcel, “Analytical Potential of Fullerene as Adsorbent for Organic and Organometallic Compounds from Aqueous Solutions,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 869, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 101-110. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(99)01050-X
[4] J. R. Baena, M. Gallego and M. Valcárcel, “Group Speciation of Metal Dithiocarbamates by Sorption on C60 Fullerene,” Analyst, Vol. 125, No. 8, 2000, pp. 1495-1499. doi:10.1039/b004217j
[5] J. R. Baena, M. Gallego and M. Valcarcel, “Speciation of Lead in Environmental Waters by Preconcentration on a New Fullerene Derivative,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 74, No. 7, 2002, pp. 1519-1524. doi:10.1021/ac0111457
[6] H. X. Zhao, L. P. Wang, Y. M. Qiu, Z. Q. Zhou, W. K. Zhong and X. Li, “Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as a Solid-Phase Extraction Adsorbent for the Determination of Three Barbiturates in Pork by Ion Trap Gas Chromatography—Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) Following Microwave Assisted Derivatization,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 586, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 399-406. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2006.12.003
[7] X. Y. Liu, Y. S. Ji, Y. H. Zhang, H. X. Zhang and M. C. Liu, “Oxidized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as a Novel Solid-Phase Microextraction Fiber for Determination of Phenols in Aqueous Samples,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1165, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 10-17. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2007.07.057
[8] J.-X. Wang, D.-Q. Jiang, Z.-Y. Gu and X.-P. Yan, “Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Coated Fibers for Solid-Phase Microextraction of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water and Milk Samples before Gas Chromatography with Electron-Capture Detection,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1137, No. 1, 2006, pp. 8-14. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2006.10.003
[9] A. A. Warra and W. L. O. Jimoh, “Overview of an Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) System,” International Journal of Chemical Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2011, pp. 41-48.
[10] T. J. Manning and W. R. Grow, “Inductively Coupled Plasma—Atomic Emission Spectrometry,” The Chemical Educator, Springer Verlag, New York, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1997, pp. 1-19.
[11] V. V. Vallapragada, G. Inti and J. S. Ramulu, “A Validated Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) Method to Estimate Free Calcium and Phosphorus in In Vitro Phosphate Binding Study of Eliphos Tablets,” American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 2, No. 6, 2011, pp. 718-725.
[12] C. B. Boss and K. J. Fredeen, “Concepts, Instrumentation and Techniques in Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry,” 3rd Edition, Perkin Elmer, Waltham, 1997.
[13] P. W. J. M. Boumans, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy: Part 2,” In: P. J. Elving and J. D. Winefordner, Eds., Chemical Analysis, Vol. 90, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1987.
[14] MiPlaza Materials Analysis, “Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES),” Tech. Note 112, Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V., 2008.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.