Fabrication of Binary Diffractive Lenses and the Application to LED Lighting for Controlling Luminosity Distribution


We designed and fabricated two types of binary diffractive lenses using Electron beam lithography (EBL) on optical films film for controlling LED light. In the case of the binary diffractive convex lens with 2-mm focal length, it is possible to control the luminous intensity distribution. To improve the diffraction efficiency and realize a thin LED light source, the binary diffractive lenses with 100-μm-order focal length are effective. Furthermore we fabricated and characterized the binary diffractive concave lenses for application in LED lighting. It is found that white-light LEDs are strongly diffused by using the binary diffractive concave lenses.

Share and Cite:

A. Motogaito and K. Hiramatsu, "Fabrication of Binary Diffractive Lenses and the Application to LED Lighting for Controlling Luminosity Distribution," Optics and Photonics Journal, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2013, pp. 67-73. doi: 10.4236/opj.2013.31011.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] A. Motogaito and K. Hiramatsu, “Fabrication of Binary Diffractive Lens on Optical Films by Electron Beam Lithography,” In: G. Kostovski, Ed., Unconventional Lithography, In Tech, Croatia, 2011, pp. 139-148.
[2] J. L. Soret, “Concerning Diffraction by Circular Gratings,” Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 156, 1875, pp. 99-113 (in German).
[3] L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch and J. A. Jordan Jr., “The Kinoform: A New Wavefront Reconstruction Device,” IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1969, pp. 150-155. doi:10.1147/rd.132.0150
[4] J. A. Jordan Jr., P. M. Hirsch, L. B. Lessem and D. L. Van Rooy, “Kinoform Lenses,” Applied Optics, Vol. 9, No. 8, 1970, pp. 1883-1887.
[5] G. J. Swason and W. B. Veldkamp, “Diffractive Optical Elements for Use in Infrared Systems,” Optical Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 6, 1989, pp. 605-608.
[6] Y. Orihara, W. Klaus, M. Fujino and K. Kodate, “Optimization and Application of Hybrid-Level Binary Zone Plates,” Applied Optics, Vol. 40, No. 32, 2001, pp. 5877-5885. doi:10.1364/AO.40.005877
[7] K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, Y. Li and K. Itoh, “Multilevel Phase-Type Diffractive Lenses in Silica Glass Induced by Filamentation of Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Optics Letters, Vol. 29, No. 16, 2004, pp. 1846-1848. doi:10.1364/OL.29.001846
[8] P. Lalanne, S. Astilean, P. Chavel, E. Cambril and H. Launois, “Design and Fabrication of Blazed Binary Diffractive Elements with Sampling Periods Smaller than the Structural Cutoff,” Journal of the Optical Society of America A, Vol. 16, No. 5, 1999, pp. 1143-1156. doi:10.1364/JOSAA.16.001143
[9] P. Lalanne, “Waveguiding in Blazed-Binary Diffractive Elements,” Journal of the Optical Society of America A, Vol. 16, No. 10, 1999, pp. 2517-2520. doi:10.1364/JOSAA.16.002517
[10] B. H. Kleemann, M. Seesselberg and J. Rudoff, “Design Concepts for Broadband High-Efficiency DOEs,” Journal of the European Optical Society, Vol. 3, 2008, Article ID: 08015. doi:10.2971/jeos.2008.08015
[11] Y. Okada, A. Murata, M. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga and M. Suzuki, “Development a Diffraction Lens for Color Imaging Using a Nanocomposite Material with High Refractive Index and High Abbe Number,” KobunshiRonbunshu, Vol. 67, No. 7, 2010, pp. 390-396 (in Japanese). doi:10.1295/koron.67.390
[12] A. Motogsito, N. Machida, T. Morikawa, K. Manabe, H. Miyake and K. Hiramatsu, “Fabrication of a Binary Diffractive Lens for Controllingthe Luminous Intensity Distribution of LED Light,” Optical Review, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2009, pp. 455-457. doi:10.1007/s10043-009-0087-3
[13] A. Motogaito, K. Arakawa, Y. Nakayama, H. Miyake and K. Hiramatsu, “Fabrication and Characterization of Binary Diffractive Lens with the 100 μm-Order-Focal Length,” Technical Digest on the 16th Microoptics Conference, Hsinchu, 31 October-3 November 2010, pp. 209-210.
[14] A. Motogaito, K. Arakawa, H. Miyake and K. Hiramatsu, “The Dependence of the 1st Order Diffraction Efficiency on the Structures of Binary Diffractive Lens with the 100 μm-Order-Focal Lengths on a PET Film,” Proceedings of the 2nd EOS Conference on Manufacturing of Optical Components, Munich, 23-25 May 2011.
[15] D. A. Buralli, G. M. Morris and J. R. Rogers, “Optical Performance of Holographic Kinoforms,” Applied Optics, Vol. 28, No. 5, 1989, pp. 976-983. doi:10.1364/AO.28.000976

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.