Analysis of Volatile Compounds and Identification of Characteristic Aroma Components of Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roem. Using GC-MS and GC-O


In this study, volatile compounds present in Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roem (TS) were investigated and their characteristic aromatic components were identified using Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). The optimum conditions for extracting the volatiles from TS were achieved with the experimental parameters including the use of a 65 μm polydimethylsiloxane/divinyl benzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre, an extraction temperature of 40 and an extraction time of 30 min. Under these conditions, 56 volatile compounds were separated and 53 were identified by GC-MS. Among them, 21 sulfide compounds (42.146%) and 27 terpenes55.984%) were found to be the major components. The sample was analyzed by GC-O and 26 elutes were sniffed and their sensory descriptions evaluated by an odor panelists. Analysis of the data indicated, two compounds cis and trans isomers of 2-Mercapto-3,4-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrothiophene were major contributors to the characteristic aroma of TS.

Share and Cite:

C. Liu, J. Zhang, Z. Zhou, Z. Hua, H. Wan, Y. Xie, Z. Wang and L. Deng, "Analysis of Volatile Compounds and Identification of Characteristic Aroma Components of Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roem. Using GC-MS and GC-O," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3, 2013, pp. 305-314. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.43041.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. M. Edmonds and M. Staniforth, “Plate 348. Toona sinensis,” Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1998, pp. 186-193. doi:10.1111/1467-8748.00169
[2] T. J. Hsieh, J. C. Wang, C. Y. Hu, C. T. Li, C. M. Kuo and S. L. Hsieh, “Effects of Rutin from Toona sinensis on the Immune and Physiological Responses of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under Vibrio alginolyticus Challenge,” Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Vol. 25, No. 5, 2008, pp. 581-588. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2008.07.014
[3] Y. C. Hseu, S. C. Chen, W. H. Lin, D. Z. Hung, M. K. Lin, Y. H. Kuo, M. T. Wang, H. J. Cho, L. Wang and H. L. Yang, “Toona sinensis (Leaf Extracts) Inhibit Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-Induced Angiogenesis in Vascular Endothelial Cells,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 134, No. 1, 2011, pp. 111-121. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.058
[4] H. Kataoka, H. L. Lord and J. Pawliszyn, “Applications of Solid-Phase Microextraction in Food Analysis,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 880, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 35-62. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00309-5
[5] S. N. Lee, N. S. Kim and D. S. Lee, “Comparative Study of Extraction Techniques for Determination of Garlic Flavor Components by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 377, No. 4, 2003, pp. 749-756. doi:10.1007/s00216-003-2163-z
[6] S. B. Junior, A. M. T. De Melo, C. A. Zini and H. T. Godoy, “Optimization of the Extraction Conditions of the Volatile Compounds from Chili Peppers by Headspace Solid Phase Micro-Extraction,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1218, No. 21, 2011, pp. 3345-3350. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2010.12.060
[7] B. D Acampora Zellner, P. Dugo, G. Dugo and L. Mondello, “Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry in Food Flavour Analysis,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1186, No. 1, 2008, pp. 123-143. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2007.09.006
[8] á. H?gnadóttir and R. L. Rouseff, “Identification of Aroma Active Compounds in Orange Essence Oil Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 998, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 201-211. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00524-7
[9] S. Guillot, L. Peytavi, S. Bureau, R. Boulanger, J. P. Lepoutre, J. Crouzet and S. Schorr-Galindo, “Aroma Characterization of Various Apricot Varieties Using Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction Combined with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 96, No. 1, 2006, pp. 147-155. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.04.016
[10] H.-P. Lv, Q.-S. Zhong, Z. Lin, L. Wang, J.-F. Tan and L. Guo, “Aroma Characterisation of Pu-erh Tea Using Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction Combined with GC/ MS and GC-Olfactometry,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 130, No. 4, 2012, pp. 1074-1081. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.07.135
[11] H. Van den Dool and P. Dec Kratz, “A Generalization of the Retention Index System Including Linear Temperature Programmed Gas—Liquid Partition Chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1963, pp. 463-471.
[12] G. Botelho, A. Mendes-Faia and M. C. Clímaco, “Characterisation of Free and Glycosidically Bound Odourant Compounds of Aragonez Clonal Musts by GC-O,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 657, No. 2, 2010, pp. 198-203. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2009.10.030
[13] L. Culleré, F. San-Juan and J. Cacho, “Characterisation of Aroma Active Compounds of Spanish Saffron by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry: Quantitative Evaluation of the Most Relevant Aromatic Compounds,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 127, No. 4, 2011, pp. 1866-1871. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.02.015
[14] S. Kreutzmann, A. K. Thybo and W. L. P. Bredie, “Training of a Sensory Panel and Profiling of Winter Hardy and Coloured Carrot Genotypes,” Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2007, pp. 482-489. doi:10.1016/j.foodqual.2006.05.009
[15] J. Marais, “Terpenes in the Aroma of Grapes and Wines: A Review,” South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1983, pp. 49-60.
[16] J. H. Kwon, K. Akram, K. C. Nam, E. J. Lee and D. U. Ahn, “Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Compounds in Irradiated Raw or Cooked Chicken Meat during Storage,” Poultry Science, Vol. 90, No. 11, 2011, pp. 2578-2583. doi:10.3382/ps.2010-01237
[17] S. Rochat, J. Y. S. Laumer and A. Chaintreau, “Analysis of Sulfur Compounds from the In-Oven Roast Beef Aroma by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1147, No. 1, 2007, pp. 85-94. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2007.02.039
[18] S. Wang, S. Yang, L. Ren, C. Qian, F. Liu and S. Jiang, “Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Leeks (Allium porrum L.) by GC-FPD,” Chromatographia, Vol. 69, No. 1, 2009, pp. 79-84. doi:10.1365/s10337-008-0816-y
[19] I. S. Chung, K. Y. Chae and K. H. Kyung, “Thermal Generation and Antimicrobial Activity of Unusual Heterocyclic Sulfur Compounds in Garlic,” Food Science and Biotechnology, Vol. 17, No. 5, 2008, pp. 1032-1037.
[20] C. C. Eady, T. Kamoi, M. Kato, N. G. Porter, S. Davis, M. Shaw, A. Kamoi and S. Imai, “Silencing Onion Lachrymatory Factor Synthase Causes a Significant Change in the Sulfur Secondary Metabolite Profile,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 147, No. 4, 2008, pp. 2096-2106. doi:10.1104/pp.108.123273
[21] R. Mu, X. Wang, S. Liu, X. Yuan, S. Wang and Z. Fan, “Rapid Determination of Volatile Compounds in Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roem. by MAE-HS-SPME Followed by GC-MS,” Chromatographia, Vol. 65, No. 7-8, 2007, pp. 463-467. doi:10.1365/s10337-007-0183-0
[22] A. Bianchi, A. Zambonelli, A. Z. D’Aulerio and F. Bellesia, “Ultrastructural Studies of the Effects of Allium sativum on Phytopathogenic Fungi in Vitro,” Plant Disease, Vol. 81, No. 11, 1997, pp. 1241-1246. doi:10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.11.1241
[23] M. C. Kuo and C. T. Ho, “Volatile Constituents of the Solvent Extracts of Welsh Onions (Allium fistulosum L. variety Maichuon) and Scallions (A. Fistulosum L. Variety Caespitosum),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 40, No. 10, 1992, pp. 1906-1910. doi:10.1021/jf00022a036
[24] M. R. Corbo, R. Lanciotti, F. Gardini, M. Sinigaglia and M. E. Guerzoni, “Effects of Hexanal, trans-2-Hexenal, and Storage Temperature on Shelf Life of Fresh Sliced Apples,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2000, pp. 2401-2408. doi:10.1021/jf991223f
[25] R. Marín, M. A. Apel, R. P. Limberger, M. C. B. Raseira, J. F. M. Pereira, J. A. S. Zuanazzi and A. T. Henriques, “Volatile Components and Antioxidant Activity from Some Myrtaceous Fruits Cultivated in Southern Brazil,” Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2008, pp. 172-177.
[26] I. A. Ogunwande, G. Flamini, P. L. Cioni, O. Omikorede, R. A. Azeez, A. A. Ayodele and Y. O. Kamil, “Aromatic Plants Growing in Nigeria: Essential Oil Constituents of Cassia alata (Linn.) Roxb. and Helianthus annuus L.,” Records of Natural Products, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2010, pp. 211-217.
[27] E. Block, D. Putman and S. H. Zhao, “Allium Chemistry: GC-MS Analysis of Thiosulfinates and Related Compounds from Onion, Leek, Scallion, Shallot, Chive, and Chinese Chive,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 40, No. 12, 1992, pp. 2431-2438. doi:10.1021/jf00024a018
[28] E. Block, “The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions,” Scientific American, Vol. 252, No. 3, 1985, pp. 114-119. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0385-114
[29] E. Block and S. H. Zhao, “Onion Essential Oil Chemistry. cis-and trans-2-mercapto-3,4-dimethyl 2,3-dihydrothiophene from Pyrolysis of Bis(1-propenyl) Disulfide,” Tetrahedron Letters, Vol. 31, No. 35, 1990, pp. 4999-5002. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)97788-8
[30] E. Block, T. Bayer, S. Naganathan and S. H. Zhao, “Allium Chemistry: Synthesis and Sigmatropic Rearrangements of Alk (en) yl 1-Propenyl Disulfide S-Oxides from Cut Onion and Garlic1,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 118, No. 12, 1996, pp. 2799-2810. doi:10.1021/ja953444h
[31] G. S. Nielsen and L. Poll, “Determination of Odor Active Aroma Compounds in Freshly Cut Leek (Allium ampeloprasum Var. Bulga) and in Long-Term Stored Frozen Unblanched and Blanched Leek Slices by Gas Chromatography Olfactometry Analysis,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 52, No. 6, 2004, pp. 1642-1646. doi:10.1021/jf030682k

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.