Early Life Obesity and Diabetes: Origins in Pregnancy


The gestational period represent a critical time for influencing birth weight, infant adiposity and growth rate, all of which are important factors in the development of obesity and diabetes in adolescence and adulthood. Prior to pregnancy, the nutritional status and weight of a mother also has significant influence on these factors. During gestation, numerous maternal factors can have a negative influence on programming of the long-term health of the offspring. Rate of maternal weight gain, glucose intolerance, gestational diabetes and pre-pregnancy BMI all have significant influence on infant size and adiposity at birth. Additionally, these factors are related to the development obesity and its co-morbidities in adolescence and adulthood. Given the rates of obesity and associated health care costs, it is very timely to understand possible fetal origins of obesity and diabetes to help shape interventions.

Share and Cite:

K. Yun Liu, J. May Chow and C. Sherry, "Early Life Obesity and Diabetes: Origins in Pregnancy," Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2013, pp. 1-12. doi: 10.4236/ojemd.2013.31001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] A. Lucas, “Programming by Early Nutrition: An Experimental Approach,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 128, No. 2, 1998, pp. 401S-406S.
[2] L. Poston, “Influences of Maternal Nutritional Status on Vascular Function in the Offspring,” Current Drug Targets, Vol. 8, No. 8, 2007, pp. 914-922.
[3] A. Singhal, “The OPTIGROW Infant Feeding Study,” Unpublished.
[4] J. A. Armitage, I. Y. Khan, P. D. Taylor, P. W. Nathanielsz and L. Poston, “Developmental Programming of the Metabolic Syndrome by Maternal Nutritional Imbalance: How Strong Is the Evidence from Experimental Models in Mammals?” The Journal of Physiology, Vol. 561, No. Pt 2, 2004, pp. 355-377.
[5] T. J. Roseboom, J. H. van der Meulen, A. C. Ravelli, C. Osmond, D. J. Barker and O. P. Bleker, “Effects of Prenatal Exposure to the Dutch Famine on Adult Disease in Later Life: An Overview,” Twin Research, Vol. 4, No. 5, 2001, pp. 293-298.
[6] P. Catalano, “Obesity, Inuslin Resistance and Pregnancy Outcome,” The Society for Reproduction and Fertility, Vol. 140, No. 3, 2010, pp. 365-371.
[7] D. J. Pettitt, S. McKenna, C. McLaughlin, C. C. Patterson, D. R. Hadden and D. R. McCance, “Maternal Glucose at 28 Weeks of Gestation Is not Associated with Obesity in 2-Year-Old Offspring,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 33, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1219-1223.
[8] L. S. Fetita, E. Sobngwi, P. Serradas, F. Calvo and J. F. Gautier, “Consequences of Fetal Exposure to Maternal Diabetes in Offspring,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 91, No. 10, 2006, pp. 3718-3724.
[9] American Diabetes Association, “Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 35, Suppl. 1, 2012, pp. S64-S69.
[10] H. King, “Epidemiology of Glucose Intolerance and Gestational Diabetes in Women of Childbearing Age,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 21, Suppl. 2, 1998, pp. B9-B13.
[11] L. K. Khan and B. A. Bowman, “Obesity: A Major Global Public Health Problem,” Annual Review of Nutrition, Vol. 19, 1999, pp. xiii-xvii.
[12] J. Chatfield, “ACOG Issues Guidelines on Fetal Macrosomia. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists,” American Family Physician, Vol. 64, No. 1, 2001, pp. 169-170.
[13] A. Aberg, H. Rydhstroem and A. Frid, “Impaired Glucose Tolerance Associated with Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: A Population-Based Study in Southern Sweden,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 184, No. 2, 2001, pp. 77-83. doi:10.1067/mob.2001.108085
[14] K. K. Ong, B. Diderholm, G. Salzano, D. Wingate, I. A. Hughes, J. MacDougall, et al., “Pregnancy Insulin, Glucose, and BMI Contribute to Birth Outcomes in Nondiabetic Mothers,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 31, No. 11, 2008, pp. 2193-2197. doi:10.2337/dc08-1111
[15] S. L. Kjos and T. A. Buchanan, “Gestational Diabetes Mellitus,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 341, No. 23, 1999, pp. 1749-1756. doi:10.1056/NEJM199912023412307
[16] S. L. Boulet, G. R. Alexander, H. M. Salihu and M. Pass, “Macrosomic Births in the United States: Determinants, Outcomes, and Proposed Grades of Risk,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 188, No. 5, 2003, pp. 1372-1378.
[17] A. Plagemann, T. Harder, R. Kohlhoff, W. Rohde and G. Dorner, “Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Secretion in Children of Mothers with Pregestational IDDM or Gestational Diabetes,” Diabetologia, Vol. 40, No. 9, 1997, pp. 1094-1100.
[18] S. H. Mehta, M. Kruger and R. J. Sokol, “Being Too Large for Gestational Age Precedes Childhood Obesity in African Americans,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 204, No. 3, 2011, pp. 265 e261-e265. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2010.12.009
[19] C. M. Boney, A. Verma, R. Tucker and B. R. Vohr, “Metabolic Syndrome in Childhood: Association with Birth Weight, Maternal Obesity, and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus,” Pediatrics, Vol. 115, No. 3, 2005, pp. e290-e296. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-1808
[20] M. L. Hediger, M. D. Overpeck, A. McGlynn, R. J. Kuczmarski, K. R. Maurer and W. W. Davis, “Growth and Fatness at Three to Six Years of Age of Children Born Smallor Large-for-Gestational Age,” Pediatrics, Vol. 104, No. 3, 1999, p. e33. doi:10.1542/peds.104.3.e33
[21] B. R. Vohr and S. T. McGarvey, “Growth Patterns of Large-for-Gestational-Age and Appropriate-for-Gestational-Age Infants of Gestational Diabetic Mothers and Control Mothers at Age 1 Year,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 20, No. 7, 1997, pp. 1066-1072. doi:10.2337/diacare.20.7.1066
[22] P. Catalano and H. M. Ehrenberg, “The Short- and Long- Term Implications of Maternal Obesity on the Mother and Her Offspring,” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Vol. 113, No. 10, 2006, pp. 1126-1133. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2006.00989.x
[23] F. A. van Assche, K. Holemans and L. Aerts, “Long-Term Consequences for Offspring of Diabetes during Pregnancy,” British Medical Bulletin, Vol. 60, No. 2001, pp. 173-182. doi:10.1093/bmb/60.1.173
[24] A. Yessoufou and K. Moutairou, “Maternal Diabetes in Pregnancy: Early and Long-Term Outcomes on the Offspring and the Concept of ‘Metabolic Memory’,” Experimental Diabetes Research, Vol. 2011, 2011, Article ID: 218598.
[25] X. Zhang, A. Decker, R. W. Platt and M. S. Kramer, “How Big Is Too Big? The Perinatal Consequences of Fetal Macrosomia,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 198, No. 5, 2008, pp. 517 e511-e516. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2007.12.005
[26] S. Rodrigues, E. J. Robinson, M. S. Kramer and K. Gray-Donald, “High Rates of Infant Macrosomia: A Comparison of a Canadian Native and a Non-Native Population,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 130, No. 4, 2000, pp. 806-812.
[27] H. Xu, F. Simonet and Z. C. Luo, “Optimal Birth Weight Percentile Cut-Offs in Defining Small- or Large-for-Gestational-Age,” Acta Paediatrica, Vol. 99, No. 4, 2010, pp. 550-555. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2009.01674.x
[28] G. R. Alexander, J. H. Himes, R. B. Kaufman, J. Mor and M. Kogan, “A United States National Reference for Fetal Growth,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 87, No. 2, 1996, pp. 163-168. doi:10.1016/0029-7844(95)00386-X
[29] R. Retnakaran, C. Ye, A. J. Hanley, P. W. Connelly, M. Sermer, B. Zinman, et al., “Effect of Maternal Weight, Adipokines, Glucose Intolerance and Lipids on Infant Birth Weight among Women without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, Vol. 184, No. 12, 2012, pp. 1353-1360. doi:10.1503/cmaj.111154
[30] E. Ota, M. Haruna, M. Suzuki, D. D. Anh, L. H. Tho, N. T. Tam, et al., “Maternal Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain and Their Association with Perinatal Outcomes in Viet Nam,” Bull World Health Organization, Vol. 89, No. 2, 2011, pp. 127-136. doi:10.2471/BLT.10.077982
[31] K. J. Hunt, M. C. Alanis, E. R. Johnson, M. E. Mayorga and J. E. Korte, “Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Weight and Gestational Weight Gain and Their Association with Birthweight with a Focus on Racial Differences,” Maternal and Child Health Journal, 11 February, 2012. doi:10.1007/s10995-012-0950-x
[32] P. Catalano, K. Farrell, A. Thomas, L. Huston-Presley, P. Mencin, S. H. de Mouzon, et al., “Perinatal Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity and Metabolic Dysregulation,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 90, No. 5, 2009, pp. 1303-1313. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27416
[33] D. K. Waller, G. M. Shaw, S. A. Rasmussen, C. A. Hobbs, M. A. Canfield, A. M. Siega-Riz, et al., “Prepregnancy Obesity as a Risk Factor for Structural Birth Defects,” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 161, No. 8, 2007, pp. 745-750. doi:10.1001/archpedi.161.8.745
[34] J. L. Mills, J. Troendle, M. R. Conley, T. Carter and C. M. Druschel, “Maternal Obesity and Congenital Heart Defects: A Population-Based Study,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 91, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1543-1549. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28865
[35] S. M. Gilboa, A. Correa, L. D. Botto, S. A. Rasmussen, D. K. Waller, C. A. Hobbs, et al., “Association between Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Congenital Heart Defects,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 202, No. 1, 2010, pp. 51 e1-51 e10. doi:10.1097/01.aoa.0000389577.48331.d9
[36] S. A. Rasmussen, S. Y. Chu, S. Y. Kim, C. H. Schmid and J. Lau, “Maternal Obesity and Risk of Neural Tube Defects: A Metaanalysis,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 198, No. 6, 2008, pp. 611-619. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2008.04.021
[37] J. G. Ray, P. R. Wyatt, M. J. Vermeulen, C. Meier and D. E. Cole, “Greater Maternal Weight and the Ongoing Risk of Neural Tube Defects after Folic Acid Flour Fortification,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 105, No. 2, 2005, pp. 261-265. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000151988.84346.3e
[38] S. Y. Chu, W. M. Callaghan, S. Y. Kim, C. H. Schmid, J. Lau, L. J. England, et al., “Maternal Obesity and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus,” Vol. 30, No. 8, 2007, pp. 2070-2076. doi:10.2337/dc06-2559a
[39] T. Y. Leung, T. N. Leung, D. S. Sahota, O. K. Chan, L. W. Chan, T. Y. Fung, et al., “Trends in Maternal Obesity and Associated Risks of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in a Population of Chinese Women,” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Vol. 115, No. 12, 2008, pp. 1529-1537. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2008.01931.x
[40] M. Tabatabaei, “Gestational Weight Gain, Prepregnancy Body Mass Index Related to Pregnancy Outcomes in KAZERUN, FARS, IRAN,” Journal of Prenatal Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2011, pp. 35-40.
[41] P. Catalano, H. D. McIntyre, J. K Cruickshank, D. R. McCance, A. R. Dyer, B. E. Metzger, et al., “The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study: Associations of GDM and Obesity with Pregnancy Outcomes,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2012, pp. 780-786. doi:10.2337/dc11-1790
[42] T. A. Hillier, K. L. Pedula, K. K. Vesco, M. M. Schmidt, J. A. Mullen, E. S. LeBlanc, et al., “Excess Gestational Weight Gain: Modifying Fetal Macrosomia Risk Associated with Maternal Glucose,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 112, No. 5, 2008, pp. 1007-1014. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e31818a9779
[43] P. Catalano, A. Thomas, L. Huston-Presley and S. B. Amini, “Increased Fetal Adiposity: A Very Sensitive Marker of Abnormal in Utero Development,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 189, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1698-1704. doi:10.1016/S0002-9378(03)00828-7
[44] S. Hester, D. Hustead, A. Mackey, A. Singhal and B. Marriage, “Is the Macronutrient Intake of Formula-Fed Infants Greater Than Breast-Fed Infants in Early Infancy?” Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, Vol. 2012, 2012, Article ID: 891201. doi:10.1155/2012/891201
[45] B. Durmus, D. O. Mook-Kanamori, S. Holzhauer, A. Hofman, E. M. van der Beek, G. Boehm, et al., “Growth in Foetal Life and Infancy Is Associated with Abdominal Adiposity at the Age of 2 Years: The Generation R Study,” Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 72, No. 5, 2010, pp. 633-640. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03708.x
[46] S. Holzhauer, A. C. Hokken Koelega, M. Ridder, A. Hofman, H. A. Moll, E. A. Steegers, et al., “Effect of Birth Weight and Postnatal Weight Gain on Body Composition in Early Infancy: The Generation R Study,” Early Human Development, Vol. 85, No. 5, 2009, pp. 285-290. doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2008.11.002
[47] A. Singhal, M. Fewtrell, T. J. Cole and A. Lucas, “Low Nutrient Intake and Early Growth for Later Insulin Resistance in Adolescents Born Preterm,” The Lancet, Vol. 361, No. 9363, 2003, pp. 1089-1097. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12895-4
[48] A. Singhal, T. J. Cole, M. Fewtrell, J. Deanfield and A. Lucas, “Is Slower Early Growth Beneficial for Long-Term Cardiovascular Health?” Circulation, Vol. 109, No. 9, 2004, pp. 1108-1113. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000118500.23649.DF
[49] N. Stettler, V. A. Stallings, A. B. Troxel, J. Zhao, R. Schinnar, S. E. Nelson, E. E. Ziegler and B. L. Strom, “Weight Gain in the First Week of Life and Overweight in Adulthood: A Cohort Study of European American Subjects Fed Infant Formula,” Circulation, Vol. 111, No. 15, 2005, pp. 1897-1903. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000161797.67671.A7
[50] K. Baptiste-Roberts, W. K. Nicholson, N. Y. Wang and F. L. Brancati, “Gestational Diabetes and Subsequent Growth Patterns of Offspring: The National Collaborative Perinatal Project,” Maternal and Child Health Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2012, pp. 125-132. doi:10.1007/s10995-011-0756-2
[51] L. Touger, H. C. Looker, J. Krakoff, R. S. Lindsay, V. Cook and W. C. Knowler, “Early Growth in Offspring of Diabetic Mothers,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2005, pp. 585-589. doi:10.2337/diacare.28.3.585
[52] A. Fraser, K. Tilling, C. Macdonald-Wallis, N. Sattar, M. J. Brion, L. Benfield, et al., “Association of Maternal Weight Gain in Pregnancy with Offspring Obesity and Metabolic and Vascular Traits in Childhood,” Circulation, Vol. 121, No. 23, 2010, pp. 2557-2564. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.906081
[53] J. K. Hamilton, J. Yin, A. J. Hanley, B. Zinman and R. Retnakaran, “Maternal Insulin Sensitivity during Pregnancy Predicts Infant Weight Gain and Adiposity at 1 Year of Age,” Obesity, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2010, pp. 340-346. doi:10.1038/oby.2009.231
[54] M. F. Sewell, L. Huston-Presley, D. M. Super and P. Catalano, “Increased Neonatal Fat Mass, not Lean Body Mass, Is Associated with Maternal Obesity,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 195, No. 4, 2006, pp. 1100-1103. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.014
[55] U. M. Schaefer-Graf, K. Graf, I. Kulbacka, S. L. Kjos, J. Dudenhausen, K. Vetter and E. Herrera, “Maternal Lipids as Strong Determinants of Fetal Environment and Growth in Pregnancies with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 31, No. 9, 2008, pp. 1858-1863. doi:10.2337/dc08-0039
[56] P. Catalano, J. Shao, L. Preston, L. Qiao and J. E. Friedman, “Downregulated IRS-1 and PPARgamma in Obese Women with Gestational Diabetes: Relationship to FFA during Pregnancy,” American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 282, No. 3, 2001, pp. E522-E533.
[57] A. Plagemann, “A Matter of Insulin: Developmental Programming of Body Weight Regulation,” Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2008, pp. 143-148. doi:10.1080/14767050801929869
[58] A. Plagemann, “Perinatal Programming and Functional Teratogenesis: Impact on Body Weight Regulation and Obesity,” Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 86, No. 5, 2005, pp. 661-668. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2005.08.065
[59] G. D?rner and A. Plagemann, “Perinatal Hyperinsulinism as Possible Predisposing Factor for Diabetes Mellitus, Obesity and Enhanced Cardiovascular Risk in Later Life,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, Vol. 26, No. 5, 1994, pp. 213-221. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1001668
[60] S. P. Kalra and P. S. Kalra, “Nutritional Infertility: The Role of the Interconnected Hypothalamic Neuropeptide Y-Galanin-Opioid Network,” Front Neuroendocrinol, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1996, pp. 371-401. doi:10.1006/frne.1996.0010
[61] K. L. Howdeshell, “A Model of the Development of the Brain as a Construct of the Thyroid System,” Endocrine Disruptors, Vol. 110, No. 3, 2002, pp. 337-348. doi:10.1289/ehp.02110s3337
[62] P. Catalano, S. Haugel-de Mouzon and J. King, “Gestational Diabetes and Insulin Resistance: Role in Short- and Long- Term Implications for Mother and Fetus,” The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 133, No. 5, 2003, pp. 1674s-1683s.
[63] B. E. Metzger, L. P. Lowe, A. R. Dyer, J. K. Cruickshank, C. Deerochanawong, H. L. Halliday, et al., “Hyperglyce- mia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study: Neonatal Gly- cemia,” Pediatrics, Vol. 126, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1545-1552. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-2257
[64] P. K. Hillier, M. M. Schmidt, J. A. Mullen, M. A. Charles and D. J. Pettitt, “Childhood Obesity and Metabolic Im- printing: The Ongoing Effects of Maternal Hyperglyce- mia,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 30, No. 9, 2007, pp. 2287-2292. doi:10.2337/dc06-2361
[65] P. Catalano, “Obesity and Pregnancy—The Propagation of a Viscous Cycle?” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 88, No. 8, 2003, pp. 3505-3506. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-031046
[66] E. Oken, S. L. Rifas-Shiman, A. E. Field, A. L. Frazier and M. W. Gillman, “Maternal Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Weight in Adolescence,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 112, No. 5, 2008, pp. 999-1006. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e31818a5d50
[67] IOM (Institute of Medicine) and NRC (National Research Council), “Weight Gain during Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines,” The National Academies Press, Washing- ton, 2009.
[68] L. M. Bodnar, A. M. Siega-Riz, H. N. Simhan, K. P. Himes and B. Abrams, “Severe Obesity, Gestational Weight Gain, and Adverse Birth Outcomes,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 91, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1642-1648. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.29008
[69] K. M. Rasmussen, P. M. Catalano and A. L. Yaktine, “New Guidelines for Weight Gain during Pregnancy: What Obstetrician/Gynecologists Should Know,” Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 21, No. 6, 2009, pp. 521-526. doi:10.1097/GCO.0b013e328332d24e
[70] J. M. Crane, J. White, P. Murphy, L. Burrage and D. Hutchens, “The Effect of Gestational Weight Gain by Body Mass Index on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2009, pp. 28-35.
[71] L. A. Schieve, M. E. Cogswell and K. S. Scanlon, “Trends in Pregnancy Weight Gain within and Outside Ranges Recommended by the Institute of Medicine in a WIC Population,” Maternal and Child Health Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1998, pp. 111-116. doi:10.1023/A:1022992823185
[72] K. M. Flegal, M. D. Carroll, C. L. Ogden and L. R. Curtin, “Prevalence and Trends in Obesity among US Adults, 1999-2008,” Journal of the American Medical Associa- tion, Vol. 303, No. 3, 2010, pp. 235-241. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.2014
[73] E. Villamor and S. Cnattingius, “Interpregnancy Weight Change and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Population-Based Study,” Lancet, Vol. 368, No. 9542, 2006, pp. 1164-1170. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69473-7
[74] O. E. Herring, S. L. Rifas-Shiman, J. W. Rich-Edwards, A. M. Stuebe, K. P. Kleinman and M. W. Gillman, “Weight Gain in Pregnancy and Risk of Maternal Hyperglycemia,” Vol. 201, No. 1, 2009, pp. e61-e67. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2009.01.039
[75] A. Tovar, A. Must, O. I. Bermudez, R. R. Hyatt and L. Chasan-Taber, “The Impact of Gestational Weight Gain and Diet on Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy in Hispanic Women,” Maternal and Child Health Journal, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2009, pp. 520-530.
[76] Y. W. Cheng, J. H. Chung, I. Kurbisch-Block, M. Inturrisi, S. Shafer and A. B. Caughey, “Gestational Weight Gain and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Perinatal Outcomes,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 112, No. 5, 2008, pp. 1015-1022. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e31818b5dd9
[77] J. Laitinen, A. Jaaskelainen, A. L. Hartikainen, U. Sovio, M. Vaarasmaki, A. Pouta, M. Kaakinen and M. R. Jarvelin, “Maternal Weight Gain during the First Half of Pregnancy and Offspring Obesity at 16 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study,” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Vol. 119, No. 6, 2012, pp. 716-723. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03319.x
[78] W. H. Dietz, “Periods of Risk in Childhood for the Development of Adult Obesity—What Do We Need to Learn?” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 127, No. 9, 1997, pp. 1884S- 1886S.
[79] A. S. Morisset, A. St-Yves, J. Veillette, S. J. Weisnagel, A. Tchernof and J. Robitaille, “Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Studies on Weight Management,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2010, pp. 17-25. doi:10.1002/dmrr.1053
[80] E. Oteng-Ntim, R. Varma, H. Croker, L. Poston and P. Doyle, “Lifestyle Interventions for Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women to Improve Pregnancy Outcome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” BMC Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 47, 2012, p. 47. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-47
[81] I. Tanentsapf, B. L. Heitmann and A. R. Adegboye, “Systematic Review of Clinical Trials on Dietary Interventions to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain during Pregnancy among Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Women,” BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, Vol. 11, No. 81, 2011, p. 81. doi:10.1186/1471-2393-11-81
[82] S. Thangaratinam, E. Rogozinska, K. Jolly, S. Glinkowski, T. Roseboom, J. W. Tomlinson, et al., “Effects of Interventions in Pregnancy on Maternal Weight and Obstetric Outcomes: Meta-Analysis of Randomised Evidence,” BMJ, Vol. 344, No. , 2012, p. e2088. doi:10.1136/bmj.e2088
[83] S. Chomtho, J. C. Wells, P. S. Davies, A. Lucas and M. S. Fewtrell, “Early Growth and Body Composition in Infancy,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 646, 2009, pp. 165-168.
[84] R. E. Harder, T, K. Schellong, J. W. Dudenhausen and A. Plagemann, “Birth Weight and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis,” American Journal of Epi- demiology, Vol. 165, No. 8, 2007, pp. 849-857. doi:10.1093/aje/kwk071
[85] K. Bowers, G. Liu, P. Wang, T. Ye, Z. Tian, E. Liu, et al., “Birth Weight, Postnatal Weight Change, and Risk for High Blood Pressure among Chinese Children,” Pediatrics, Vol. 127, No. 5, 2011, pp. e1272-e1279. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-2213
[86] J. Baird, D. Fisher, P. Lucas, J. Kleijnen, H. Roberts and C. Law, “Being Big or Growing Fast: Systematic Review of Size and Growth in Infancy and Later Obesity,” BMJ, Vol. 331, No. 7522, 2005, p. 929. doi:10.1136/bmj.38586.411273.E0
[87] P. O. Monteiro and C. G. Victora, “Rapid Growth in Infancy and Childhood and Obesity in Later Life—A Systematic Review,” Obesity Reviews, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2005, pp. 143-154. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2005.00183.x
[88] K. K. Ong, “Size at Birth and Early Childhood Growth in Relation to Maternal Smoking, Parity and Infant Breast-Feeding: Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study and Analysis,” Pediatric Research, Vol. 52, No. 6, 2002, pp. 863-867. doi:10.1203/00006450-200212000-00009
[89] A. Singhal and A. Lucas, “Early Origins of Cardiovascular Disease: Is There a Unifying Hypothesis?” The Lancet, Vol. 363, No. 9421, 2004, pp. 1642-1645. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16210-7
[90] C. E. Elks, R. J. Loos, S. J. Sharp, C. Langenberg, S. M. Ring, N. J. Timpson, et al., “Genetic Markers of Adult Obesity Risk Are Associated with Greater Early Infancy Weight Gain and Growth,” PLOS Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 5, 2010, Article ID: e1000284. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000284

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.