Ecosystem services of coastal sand dunes saw from the aspect of Sake breweries in Chiba Prefecture, Japan: A comparison of coastal and inland areas

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DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.31006    4,632 Downloads   7,595 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

In this report, we reviewed the differences in the ecosystem services of coastal and inland areas surrounding 39 Sake breweries in Chiba Prefecture by investigating environmental variables (e.g., location, altitude, soil, and hardness of preparation water). The Sake breweries were located in three distinct environments: the coastal vicinity, the river plains region, and the plateau/ mountainous region. The hardness of the preparation water and the soil types in the coastal vicinity were compared with those of the river plains and the plateau/mountainous region. Strong hard and hard water sources were observed in 70% or more of the breweries in the coastal vicinity, and sand dune regosol, coarse particle brown lowland soil, and coarse particle grey soil were more prevalent along the coast than inland. Most of the Sake brewery wells in the coastal vicinity were approximately 5 - 10 munderground, and there were no great differences in the number of Sake breweries in each well depth class in the river plains and the plateau/mountains region. We analysed environmental factors (distance from the sea, soil type, water hardness and preparation water collection depth) using a principal component analysis. This analysis revealed the existence of three main environments: the coastal vicinity, the river plains and the plateau/mountainous region. We conclude that the decrease in altitude between the inland Sake breweries and those along the coast is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the hardness of preparation water (from soft water to strong hard or hard water) and shifts in soil composition from gley soil, grey lowland soil, brown forest soil, and andosol to sand dune regosol, coarse particle brown lowland soil, and coarse particle grey soil.

Cite this paper

Kaneko, K. , Oshida, K. and Matsushima, H. (2013) Ecosystem services of coastal sand dunes saw from the aspect of Sake breweries in Chiba Prefecture, Japan: A comparison of coastal and inland areas. Open Journal of Ecology, 3, 48-52. doi: 10.4236/oje.2013.31006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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