Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream


A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollution is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic sidestream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar loaf and MD2 pineapple varieties were evaluated. Organic side-stream pineapple syrup developed from MD2 recorded the highest moisture content with a corresponding water activity. The colour change in OSPS was significant among the three varieties and Sugar loaf variety deviated from the standard yellow colour more than Smooth cayenne and MD2 varieties. This was buttress by the high Total Soluble Solids in 10% and 20% dilutions of Sugar loaf. The OSPS was acidic. In bread, incorporating 5% OSPS (w:w) of Sugar loaf recorded the highest percentage acceptability among the pineapple varieties. Interestingly, in the production of cakes with 15%, 20% and 30% OSPS, MD2 recorded the highest percentage overall acceptance. For bread and cake, there was varied significance (P < 0.05) of the sensory properties for appearance, colour, aroma, taste, texture, crust, mouthfeel and overall acceptance. Notably, cake and bread with incorporated OSPS of 15% MD2 and 5% Sugar loaf was more acceptable.

Share and Cite:

C. Tortoe, P. Johnson, T. Slaghek, M. Miedema and T. Timmermans, "Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 163-168. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.42023.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] D. P. Bartholomew and E. B. Maleieux, “Pineapple,” 2nd Edition, CRC Press Incorporated, Boca Raton, 1994, pp. 42-66.
[2] F. A. N. Fernandes Jr., F. E. Linhares and S. Rodrigues, “Ultrasound as pre-Treatment for Drying of Pineapple,” Ultrasonic Sonochemistry, Vol. 15, No. 6, 2008, pp. 1049-1054. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2008.03.009
[3] L. M. de Carvalho Jaeger, I. M. de Castro and C. A. B. da Silva, “A Study of Retention of Sugars in the Process of Clarification of Pineapple Juice (Ananas cosmosus, L. Merril) by Micro-and Ultra-Filtration,” Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 87, No. 4, 2008, pp. 447-454. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.12.015
[4] FAO, “Production Year Book 2009,” Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 2009.
[5] J. L. Slavin, “Position of the American Dietetic Association: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 108, No. 10, 2008, pp. 1716. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.08.007
[6] H. U. Hebbar, B. Sumana and K. S. M. S. Raghavarao, “Use of Reverse Micellar Systems for the Extraction and Purification of Bromelain from Pineapple Wastes,” Journal of Bioresources Technology, Vol. 99, No. 11, 2008, pp. 4896-4902. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2007.09.038
[7] J. A. Samson, “Tropical Fruits,” Longman Incorporated Publishers, New York, 1986, pp. 44-56.
[8] B. N. Tochi, Z. Wang, S.-Y. Xu and W. Zhang, “Therapeutic Application of Pineapple Protease (Bromelain): A Review,” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 7, No. 4, 2008, pp. 513-520. doi:10.3923/pjn.2008.513.520
[9] I. MacDonald and J. Low, “Tropical Field Crop,” 2nd Edition, Evans Brothers Limited, London, 1996, p. 58.
[10] M. Eastwood and D. Kritchevsky, “Dietary Fiber: How Did We Get Where We Are,” Journal of Food Sciences, Vol. 25, 2005, pp. 1-8.
[11] National Academy of Sciences, “Dietary Reference Intakes,” Journal of Food and Nutrition, Vol. 43, 2010, pp. 473-512.
[12] R. Deliza, A. Rosenthal, F. B. D. Abadio, C. H. O. Silva and C. Castillo, “Utilization of Pineapple Waste from Juice Processing Industries: Benefits Perceived by Consumers,” Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 67, No. 1-2, 2005. pp. 241-246. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.05.068
[13] D. S. Rani and K. Nand, “Ensilage of Pineapple Processing Waste for Methane Generation,” Journal of Waste Management, Vol. 24, No. 5, 2004, pp. 523-528. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2003.10.010
[14] R. T. P. Correia, P. McCue, M. M. A. Magalhaes, G. R. Macedo and K. Shetty, “Production of Phenolic Antioxidants by the solid-state bioconversion of Pineapple Waste Mixed with Soy Flour Using Rhizopus oligosporus,” Process Biochemistry Journal, Vol. 39, 2004, pp. 2167-4902. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2003.11.034
[15] Hunter Laboratory Manual, “Hunter Associate Laboratory Universal Software, Version 3.8. ISO 9001 Certified,” Reston, 2001.
[16] R. S. Kirk and R. Sawyerr, “Pearson’s Composition and Analysis of Foods,” 9th Edition, Longman Singapore Publishers (Pte) Ltd., 1990, p. 578.
[17] AOAC, “Official Methods of Analysis,” 17th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemist International, Washington DC, 2000.
[18] A. I. Ihekoronye and P. O. Ngoddy, “Integrated Food Science and Technologies for the Tropics,” Macmillian Publishers Ltd., London, 1985, pp. 182-184.
[19] R. Rampersad, N. Badrie and E. Comissiong, “Physiochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Flavored Snacks from Extruded Cassava/Pigeon Pea Flour,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2003, pp. 363-367. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb14166.x
[20] S. Hooda and S. Jood, “Organoleptic and Nutritional Evaluation of Wheat Biscuits Supplemented with Untreated and Treated Fenugreek Flour,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 90, No. 3, 2005, pp. 427-435. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.05.006
[21] H. T. Lawless and H. Heymann, “Sensory Evaluation of Food: Principles and Practices,” Chapman and Hall, New York, 1998, p. 827.
[22] L. Beuchat, “Water Activity and Microbial Stability,” Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Athens, 1997.
[23] T. Prakongpan, A. Nitithamyong and P. Luangpituksa, “Extraction and Application of Dietary Fiber and Cellulose from Pineapple Cores,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 67, No. 4, 2002, pp. 1308-1313. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb10279.x
[24] H. K. Sreenath, K. R. Sudarshanakrishna, N. N. Prasad and K. Santhanam, “Characteristics of Some Fiber Incorporated Cake Preparations and Their Dietary Fiber Content,” Starch-Starke, Vol. 48, No. 2, 1996, pp. 72-76. doi:10.1002/star.19960480208
[25] C. M. Brien, D. Chapman, D. P. Neville, M. K. Keogh and E. K. Arendt, “Effect of Varying the Microencapsulation Process on the Functionality of Hydrogenated Vegetable Fat in Shortdough Biscuits,” Food Research International, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2003, pp. 215-221. doi:10.1016/S0963-9969(02)00139-4
[26] M. A. Mayer and E. Harel, “Review: Polyphenoloxidases in Plants,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1979, pp. 193-215. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(79)80057-6
[27] H. E. Moline, J. G. Buta and I. M. Newman, “Prevention of Browning of Banana Slices Using Natural Products and Their Derivatives,” Journal of Food Quality, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1999, pp. 499-511. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4557.1999.tb00181.x
[28] J. G. Buta and H. E. Moline, “Prevention of Browning of Potato Slices Using Polyphenoloxidase Inhibitors and Organic Acids,” Journal of Food Quality, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2000, pp. 271-282. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4557.2001.tb00608.x
[29] G. A. Gonzalez-Aguilar, C. Y. Wang and J. G. Buta, “Inhibition of Browning and Decay of Fresh Cut Radish by Natural Compounds and Their Derivatives,” Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie, Vol. 34, 2001, pp. 324-328.
[30] A. Ramirez and E. P. de Delahaye, “Functional Properties of Starches with High Dietetic Fiber Content Obtained from Pineapple, Guava and Soursop,” Interciencia, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2009, pp. 293-298.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.