Limnological study of Dokan, Derbendikhan and Duhok lakes, Kurdistan region of Iraq


The present study deals with the assessment of physico-chemical characteristics of Dokan, Derbendikhan and Duhok lakes. The physico-chemical characteristics of these lakes have been studied and analyzed for a year, during January-April-July and October 2009. Seasonal variations of two sampling sites of the lakes have been observed. Various parameters including air temperature, water temperature, electrical conductivity, TDS, pH, total alkalinity, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, chloride, nitrite and phosphate have been analyzed. The study has revealed that there are significant seasonal variations in some physico-chemical parameters and as a whole most of the parameters are different in the three lakes.

Share and Cite:

Toma, J. (2013) Limnological study of Dokan, Derbendikhan and Duhok lakes, Kurdistan region of Iraq. Open Journal of Ecology, 3, 23-29. doi: 10.4236/oje.2013.31003.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Mullar, R.M., Rajashekhar, M., Vijaykumar, K. and Haliked N.S. (2010) Seasonal variation in physico-chemical parameters of Hirahalla Reservoir, Koppal District Karnataka. International Journal of Systems Biology, 2, 16-20.
[2] Adorn, A.D. (1985) Work Book on Limnology. Pratibha Pub., Bangalore.
[3] Carpenter, S.R., Caraco, N.F. and Correll, D.L. (1998) Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications, 8, 559-568. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(1998)008[0559:NPOSWW]2.0.CO;2
[4] Simeonov, V., Stratis J.A., Samara C., Zachariadis, G., et al. (2003) Assessment of the surface water quality in Northern Greece. Water Research, 37, 4119-4124. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00398-1
[5] Sugnan, V.V. (1995) Reservoir fisheries of India. Fisheries Technical Papers No. 345, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
[6] Muley, D.V. and Gaikwad, P.T. (1999) Limnological studies of Shiroli reservoir—A case study. In: Kumar, K.V., Ed., Freshwater Ecosystem of India, Daya Publishing House, Delhi, 109-132.
[7] Chatawal, G.R. (1998) Encyclopedia of environmental biology, Vol. 2. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 287-301.
[8] Boyd, C.E. and Tucker, C.S. (1998) Pond aquaculture and water quality management. Kluwer Academic Pub., London, 44-48. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-5407-3
[9] Rahi, K.A. and Halihan, T. (2010) Changes in the salinity of the Euphrates River System in Iraq. Regional Environment Change, 10, pp. 27-35. doi:10.1007/s10113-009-0083-y
[10] Jones, C., Sultan, M., Yan, E., Milewski, A., Hussein, M., Al-Dousari, A., Al-Kaisy, S. and Becker, R. (2008) Hydrologic impacts of engineering projects on the Tigris-Euphrates System and its Marshlands. Journal of Hydrology, 353, 59-75. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.01.029
[11] APHA. (1998) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association, 20th edition, Washington. D.C.
[12] Shaban, A.A.G. (1980) An ecological study on phytoplankton in Dokan Lake. M.Sc. Thesis, Sulaimamiyah University, Sulaimaniyah.
[13] Toma, J.J. (2000).Limnological study of Dokan Lake, Kurdistan region of Iraq. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Salahaddin. Arbil. Iraq.
[14] Bunic, D. (1955) Dokan Dam Project. Ministry of Irrigation, Government of Iraq.
[15] Rozoska, J. (1980) Euphrates and Tigris, Mesopotamia ecology and destiny, Vol38. In: Junk, W., Monographiae Biologica, The Hague-Boston, London. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-9171-2
[16] Al-Shalash, A.H. (1966) The climate of Iraq. The Cooperative printing, Presses Workers Society, Amman.
[17] Anon (2006) The World Bank, Dokan and Derbendikhan Emergency Hydropower. Consultancy Services for Dokan and Derbendikhan Dam Inspections, Inspection report (final), E1537.SMEC. Section A: Complementary Grouting in Dam Main Remedial Works (Phase1), Analysis of Dam Behavior, Review of Previous Reports Recommendations, Coyne at Bellier, 1975.
[18] Szczerbowski, J.A., Bartel, R. and Ciepielewski, W. (2001) Hydrological characteristics of Dokan and Derbendikhan Dam and lakes of Tharthar, Habbaniya and Razzazah. Polish Fisheries, 9, 7-18.
[19] Guest, E. (1966). Flora of Iraq, Vol 1. Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad.
[20] Al-Ganabi, H.A. (1985) Duhok city: A study in urban geography. University of Mosul, Mosul.
[21] Odum, E.P. (1971) Fundamentals of ecology. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.
[22] Mahmoud, S.A. (2002) Evaluation of toxicity of some pollutant on histological and biochemical features of Orcachomis niloticus in River Nile. Ph.D. Thesis, Zagazig University, Zagazig.
[23] Rasheed, R.O. (2008) Evaluation of heavy metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water, fish, and sediments within Derbendikhan reservoir. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Sulaymaniyah, Sulaymaniyah.
[24] Raoof, I.Y. (2002) A phycolimnological study on Duhok impoundment and its main Watershade. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Dohuk, Dohuk.
[25] Ahipathy, M.V. and Puttaiah, E.T. (2006) Ecological Characteristics of Vrishabhavathy River in Bangalore (India). Environmental Geology, 49, 1217-1222. doi:10.1007/s00254-005-0166-0
[26] World Health Organization (WHO) (2004) Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 3rd Edition, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva.
[27] Abdo, M.H. (2005) Physico-chemical characteristics of Abu Za’baal Ponds, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 31, 1-15.
[28] Yal??n, T., Aysun, T., Ekrem, M. and Alpaslan, A. (2005) Some physicochemical characteristics of Yarseli Lake, Hatay, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 5, 35-42.
[29] Tepe, Y. and Mutlu, E. (2004). Physico-chemical characteristics of Hatay Harbiye spring water. Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology of Dumlup?nar University, 6, 77-88.
[30] Ali, S.S. (1999) Freshwater Fishery Biology. Naseem Book Depot, Hyderabad, 108-114.
[31] Kumar, A., Qureshi, T.A., Parashar, A. and Patiyal, R.S. (2006) Seasonal variation in physico-chemical characteristics of Ranjit Sagar reservoir, Jammu & Kashmir. Journal of Ecophysiology & Occupational Health, 6, 159-163.
[32] Quinby-Hunt, M.S., McLaaughlin, R.D. and Quintanila, A.T. (1986) Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring. Volume 2: Water. 2nd Edition, Wiley-Interscience, New York.
[33] Swarup, K. and Singh, S.R. (1976) Limnological Studies on Suraha Lake. J. Inland Fish Soc. India 11(1): 22-23.
[34] American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and World Environment Federation (2005) Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. 21st Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington DC.
[35] Govindasamy, C., Kannan, L. and Azariah, J. (2000) Seasonal variation in physico-chemical properties and primary production in the coastal water biotopes of Coromandel Coast, India. Journal of Environmental Biology, 21, 1-7.
[36] Mathew, L. and Pillai, V.N. (1989) Chemical characteristics of the waters around Andaman during late winter. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Scientific Results of FORV Sagar Sampada, Kochi, 5-7 June 1989, 15-18.
[37] Murugan, A. and K. Ayyakkannu (1991) Ecology of Uppanar backwater, Cuddalore: I. Physico-chemical parameters. Mahasagar—Bulletin of National Institute of Oceanography, 24, 31-38.
[38] Rajasegar, M. (2003) Physico-chemical characteristics of the Vellar estuary in relation to shrimp farming. Journal of Environmental Biology, 24, 95-101.
[39] Tiwari, L.R. and Nair, R.V. (1993) Zooplankton composition in Dharamtar creek adjoining Bombay harbour. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 22, 63-69.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.