Supplementation at casing to improve yield and quality of white button mushroom


Supplementation of substrate at casing to increase the yield and quality of mushroom [Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing] is an important practice in commercial production of white button mushroom. This project was done to study the effects of supplementing the compost at casing with ground corn and soybean seed applied at: 0 gas control, 17, 34 and51 gper17 kgcompost on production and harvest quality of A. bisporus. There were significant differences between supplemented and non-supplemented substrates. The34 gsoybean and51 gcorn treatments had the highest yield. There were significant differences in quality indices of mushroom due to the type and amount of the supplement. The51 gsoybean supplement produced higher protein compared with other substrates. The highest vitamin C, total phenol, total soluble solids and antioxidant capacity obtained of 34 and51 gsoybeans or 34 and51 gcorn, respectively. Increased production and quality of A. bisporus may be achieved by addition of suitable amounts of supplements.

Share and Cite:

Mami, Y. , Peyvast, G. , Ghasemnezhad, M. and Ziaie, F. (2013) Supplementation at casing to improve yield and quality of white button mushroom. Agricultural Sciences, 4, 27-33. doi: 10.4236/as.2013.41005.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Giri, S.K. and Prasad S. (2007) Drying kinetics and rehydration characteristics of microwave vacuum and convective hot-air dried mushrooms. Journal of Food Engineering, 78, 512-521. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.10.021
[2] Delphina, P.M. and Royse, D.J. (2008) The influence of spawn type and strain on yield, size and mushroom solids content of Agaricus bisporus produced on non-composted and spent mushroom compost. Bioresource Technology, 99, 3205-3212. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2007.05.073
[3] Gerrits, J.P.G. (1974) Development of a synthetic compost for mushroom growing based on wheat straw and chicken manure. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, 22, 175-194.
[4] Eger, G. (1972) Experimentsand comments on the action of bacteria on spho-rophore initation in Agaricusbisporus. Mushroom Science, 8, 719-725.
[5] Hayes, W.A. (1981) Interrelated studies of physical, chemical and biological factors in casing soils and relationships with productivity in commercial culture of Agaricusbisporus. Mushroom Science, 11, 103-129.
[6] Schisler, L.C. and Sinden, J.W. (1966) Nutrient supplementation of mushroom compost at casing. Canadian Journal of Botany, 4, 287-293.
[7] Sing, R.N. and Jain, V.B. (1982) Nutrient supplementation for good yield of button mushroom. Indian Phytopathology, 35, 535-536.
[8] Coello-Castillo, M.M., Sánchez, J.E. and Royse, D.J. (2009) Production of Agaricus bisporus on substrates pre colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum and supplemented at casing with protein-rich supplements. Bioresource Technology, 100, 4488-4492. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.10.061
[9] Carroll, A.D. and Schisler, L.C. (1976) Delayed release nutrient supplement for mushroom culture. American Society for Microbiology, 31, 499-503.
[10] Schisler, L.C. (1967) Stimulation of yield in the cultivated mushroom by vegetable oils. American Society for Microbiology, 15, 844-850.
[11] Sinden, J.W. and Sehialer, L.C. (1962) Nutrient supplementation of mushroom compost at casing. Mushroom Science, 5, 267-280.
[12] Vijay, B., Sharma, S.R. and Lakhanpal, T.N. (2002) Effect of treating post-composting with different concentrations of formaldehyde on the yield of Agaricus bisporus. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, 239-242.
[13] Gerrits, J.P.G. (1986) Supplementation with formaldehyde treated soybean meal. Journal of Mushroom, 161, 169-174.
[14] Dhar, B.L. and Kapoor, J.N. (1990) Inhibition of growth of Agaricusbisporus by systemic fungicides. Indian Phytopathology, 43, 473-474.
[15] Vijay, B. and Gupta, Y. (1992) Studies on fungal competitors of Agaricusbisporus. Journal Indian Phytopathology, 45, 228-238.
[16] Rodriguez Estrada, A.E., Jimenez-Gasco, M.D.M. and Royse, D.J. (2009). Improvement of yield of Pleurotuseryngii var. eryngii by substrate supplementation and use of a casing overlay. Bioresource Technology, 100, 5270-5276. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2009.02.073
[17] Royse, D.J., Sanchez, J.E., Beelman, R.B. and Davidson, J. (2008) Re-supplementing and recasing mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) compost for a second crop. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24, 319-325. doi:10.1007/s11274-007-9473-9
[18] Kassim, M.Y., Khalie, L.A.S. and Al Rahmah, A.N. (1990) Effects of casing soil amendments and nutrient supplementation on mushroom cropping. Agricultural Science, 2, 225-230.
[19] Randle, P.E. (1984) Supplementation of mushroom compost: A review. Mushroom Journal, 151, 241-269.
[20] Shandilya, T.R. (1986) Effect of different pasteurized compost on the yield of Agaricus bisporus. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 4, 89-90.
[21] Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (2002) Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists. 16th Edition, AOAC, Washington DC.
[22] Bradford, M.M. (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248-254. doi:10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3
[23] Singleton, V.L., Or-thofer, R. and Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. (1990) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, Oxidants and Antioxidants, 299, 152-178. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1
[24] Elez-Martínez, P. and Martín-Belloso, O. (2007) Effects of high intensity pulsed electric field processing conditions on vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of orange juice and gazpacho, a cold vegetable soup. Food Chemistry, 102, 201-209. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.04.048
[25] Cochet, N., Gillman, A. and Lebeault, J.M. (1992) Some biological characteristics of the casing soil and their effect during Agaricus bisporus fructification. Acta Biotechnologica, 12, 411-419. doi:10.1002/abio.370120510
[26] Gulser, C. and Peksen, A. (2003) Using tea waste as a new casing material in mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (L.) Sing.) cultivation. Bioresource Tech-nology, 88, 153-156. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00279-1
[27] Kalberer, P.P. (1985) Influence of the depth of the casing layer on the water extraction from casing soil and substrate by the sporophores, on the yield and on the dry matter content of the fruit bodies of the first three flushes of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Scientia Horticulturae, 27, 33-43. doi:10.1016/0304-4238(85)90052-4
[28] Pardo, A., DeJuan, J.A. and Pard, J.E. (2002) Bacterial activity in different types of casing during mushroom cultivation (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach). Acta Alimentaria, 31, 327-342. doi:10.1556/AAlim.31.2002.4.3
[29] Peyvast, Gh., Shahbodaghi, J., Ramezani-Kharazi, P. and Olfati, J.A. (2007) Performance of tea waste as a peat alternative for bottom mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing) cultivation. Biosciences, Bio-technology Research Asia, 4, 489-494.
[30] Schroeder, G.M. and Schisler, L.C. (1981) Influence of compost and casing moisture on size, yield and dry weight of mushrooms. Mushroom Science, 11, 495-509.
[31] Barros, L., Falcao, S., Baptista, P., Freire, C., Vilas-Boas, M. and Ferreira, I.C.F.R. (2008) Antioxidant activity of Agaricus sp. mushrooms by chemical, biochemical and electrochemical assays. Food Chemistry, 111, 61-66. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.03.033
[32] Cheung, L.M., Cheung, P.C.K. and Ooi, V.E.C. (2003) Antioxidant activity and total phenolics of edible mushroom extracts. Food Chemistry, 81, 249-255. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00419-3
[33] Kim, M.Y., Seguin, J.K., Ahn, J.J., Kim, S.C., Chun, E.H., Kim, S.H., Seo, E.Y., Kang, S.L., Kim, Y.J., Park, R. and Chung, I.M. (2008) Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activities of edible and medicinal mushrooms from Korea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 7265-7270. doi:10.1021/jf8008553
[34] Lachman, J., Pivec, V., Rehakova, V. and Hubacek, J. (1990) Polyphenols and isoflavonoids of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr). Rostlinna Vyroba, 36, 295-301.
[35] Mamiro, D.P. and Royse, D.J. (2008) The influence of spawn type and strain on yield, size and mushroom solids content of Agaricus bisporus produced on non-composted and spent mushroom compost. Bioresource Technology, 99, 3205-3212. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2007.05.073
[36] Mau, J.L., Beelman, R.B., Ziegler, G.R. and Royse, D.J. (1991) Effect of nutrient supplementation on flavour, quality and shelf life of the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Mycologia, 83, 142-149. doi:10.2307/3759929
[37] Holtz, R.B. and schisler, L.C. (1986) Utilization of fatty acids by Agaricus bisporus in commercial culture. Mycologia, 78, 722-727. doi:10.2307/3807516
[38] Holtz, R.B. (1971) Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free neutral carbohydrates in mushroom tissue by gasliquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 19, 1272-1273. doi:10.1021/jf60178a052

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.