Application of Water Quality Index for Assessment of Dokan Lake Ecosystem, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Abdul Hameed M. Jawad Alobaidy, Haider S. Abid, Bahram K. Maulood
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.29093   PDF    HTML     13,368 Downloads   28,743 Views   Citations


Water Quality Index (WQI) was applied in Dokan Lake, Kurdistan region, Iraq using ten water quality parameters (pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Turbidity, Conductivity, Hardness, Alkalinity, Sodium, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Nitrate and Nitrite). The relative weight assigned to each parameter ranged from 1 to 4 based on the importance of the parameter for aquatic life. The results indicated that water quality of Dokan Lake declined from Good in the years 1978, 1979, 1980, 1999, 2000 and 2008 to Poor in 2009. The impact of various anthropogenic activities was evident on some parameters such as the EC and BOD. It is suggested that monitoring of the lake is necessary for proper management. Application of the WQI is also suggested as a very helpful tool that enables the public and decision makers to evaluate water quality of lakes in Iraq.

Share and Cite:

A. Alobaidy, H. Abid and B. Maulood, "Application of Water Quality Index for Assessment of Dokan Lake Ecosystem, Kurdistan Region, Iraq," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2 No. 9, 2010, pp. 792-798. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.29093.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] K. A. Rahi and T. Halihan, “Changes in the Salinity of the Euphrates River Ssystem in Iraq,” Regional Environment Change, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2010, pp. 27-35.
[2] J. M. Trondalen, “Climate Changes, Water Security and Possible Remedies for the Middle East,” United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2009.
[3] C. Jones, M. Sultan, E. Yan, A. Milewski, M. Hussein, A. Al-Dousari, S. Al-Kaisy and R. Becker, “Hydrologic Impacts of Engineering Projects on the Tigris-Euphrates System and its Marshlands,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 553, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 59-75.
[4] H. J. Vaux, “Water Quality (Book Review),” Environment, Vol. 43, No. 3, 2001, p. 39.
[5] A., Parparov, K. D. Hambright, L. Hakanson and A. Ostapenia, “Water Quality Quantification: Basics and Implementation,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 560, No. 1, 2006, pp. 227-237.
[6] A. Sargaonkar and V. Deshpande, “Development of an Overall Index of Pollution for Surface Water Based on a General Clas-sification Scheme in Indian Context,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 89, No. 1, 2003, pp. 43-67.
[7] H. Boyacioglu, “Surface Water Quality Assessment Using Factor Analysis,” Water SA, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2006, pp. 389-394.
[8] V. Simeonov, J. W. Einax, I. Stanimirova and J. Kraft, “Environmetric Modeling and Interpretation of River Water Monitoring Data,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 374, No. 5, 2002, pp. 898-905.
[9] H. Boyacioglu and H. Boyacioglu, “Surface Water Quality Assessment by Environmetric Methods,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 131, No. 1-3, 2007, pp. 371-376.
[10] S. L. Dwivedi and V. Pathak, “A Preliminary Assignment of Water Quality Index to Mandakini River, Chitrakoot,” Indian J. Environmental Protection, Vol. 27, No. 11, 2007, pp. 1036-1038.
[11] M. Nasirian, “A New Water Quality Index for Environmental Contamination Contributed by Mineral Processing: A Case Study of Amang (Tin Tailing) Processing Activity,” Journal of applied sciences, Vol. 7, No. 20, 2007, pp. 2977-2987.
[12] F. S. Simoes, A. B. Moreira, M. C. Bisinoti, S. M. N. Gimenez and M. J. S. Yabe, “Water Quality Index as a Simple Indicator of Aquaculture Effects on Aquatic Bodies,” Ecological Indicators, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2008, pp. 476-484.
[13] C. J. Rickwood and G. M. Carr, “Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Global Drinking Water Quality Index,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 156, No. 1-4, 2009, pp. 73-90.
[14] A. R. Olsen, J. Sedransk, D. Edwards, C. A. Gotway, W. Liggett, S. Rathbun, K. H. Reckhow and L. J. Young, “Statistical Issues for Monitoring Ecological and Natural Resources in the United States,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 54, No. 1, 1999, pp. 1-45.
[15] E. Sánchez, M. F. Colmenarejo, J. Vicente, A. Rubio, M. G. García, L. Travieso and R. Borja, “Use of the Water Quality Index and Dissolved Oxygen Deficit as Simple Indicators of Watershed Pollution,” Ecological Indicators, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2007, pp. 315-328.
[16] A. A. Bordalo, R. Teixeira and W. J. Wiebe, “A Water Quality Index Applied to an International Shared River Basin: The Case of Douro River,” Environmental Management, Vol. 38, No. 6, 2006, pp. 910-920.
[17] M. T. Shultz, “A Critique of EPA’s Index of Watershed Indicators,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 62, No. 4, 2001, pp. 429-442.
[18] R. K. Horton, “An Index Number System for Rating Water Quality,” Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1965, pp. 300-306.
[19] R. M. Brown, N. I. McClelland, R. A. Deininger and R. G. Tozer, “A Water Quality Index: Do We Dare?” Water Sewage Works, Vol. 117, No. 10, 1970, pp. 339-343.
[20] W. R. Ott, “Environmental Indices: Theory and Practice,” Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, 1978.
[21] D. G. Smith, “A Better Water Quality Indexing System for Rivers and Streams,” Water Research, Vol. 24, No. 10, 1990, pp. 1237-1244.
[22] N. ?tambuk-Giljanovi?, “Water Quality Evaluation by Index in Dalmatia,” Water Research, Vol. 33, No. 16, 1999, pp. 3423-3440.
[23] S. F. Pesce and D. A. Wunderlin, “Use of Water Quality Indices to Verify the Impact of Córdoba City (Argentina) on Suquìa River,” Water Research, Vol. 34, No. 11, 2000, pp. 2915-2926.
[24] F. Khan, T. Husain and A. Lumb, “Water Quality Evaluation and Trend Analysis in Selected Watersheds of the Atlantic Region of Canada,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 88, No. 1-3, 2003, pp. 221-248.
[25] A. A. G. Shaban, “An Ecological Study on Phytoplankton in Dokan Lake,” MSc Thesis, Sulaimaniyah University, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq, 1980.
[26] D. Bunic, “Dokan Dam Project,” Manuscript Available at the Ministry of Irrigation, Government of Iraq, 1955.
[27] M. I. Al-Hamed, “Limnological Investigation of Dokan Reservoir,” Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History Bull Am Mus Nat Hist, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1976, pp. 1-22.
[28] M. Al-Sahaf, “Pollution Control and Water Resources of Iraq,” Al-Hurria Printing House, Baghdad, 1976, pp. 307.
[29] R. A. A. Jabar, “An Ecological Studies on Leeser Zab,” MSc Thesis, Sulaimaniyah University, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq, 1981.
[30] J. J. Toma, “Limnological Study of Dokan Lake, Kurdistan Region, Iraq,” MSc Thesis, Salahaddin University, Arbill, Iraq, 2000.
[31] American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and World Environment Federation, “Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater,” 21st Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 2005.
[32] World Health Organization (WHO), “Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality,” 3rd Edition, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, 2004.
[33] Drinking-Water Standard IQS: 417, Central Organization for Quality Control and Standardization, Council of Ministers, Republic of Iraq, 2001.
[34] V. Pathak and A. K. Banerjee, “Mine Water Pollution studies in Chapha Incline, Umaria Coalfield, Eastern Madhya Pradesh, India,” Mine Water and the Environment, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1992, pp. 27-36.
[35] H. Boyacioglu, “Development of a Water Quality Index Based on a European Classification Scheme,” Water SA, Vol. 33, No. 1, 2007, pp. 101-106.
[36] P. R. Kannel, S. Lee, Y. Lee, S. R. Kanel and S. P. Khan, “Application of Water Quality Indices and Dissolved Oxygen as Indicators for River Water Classification and Urban Impact Assessment,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 132, No. 1-3, 2007, 93-110.
[37] R. Abrah?o, M. Carvalho, W. R. da Silva J?nior, T. T. Viana Machado, C. L. Moreira Gadelha and M. I. Medine Hernandez, “Use of Index Analysis to Evaluate the Water Quality of a Stream Receiving Industrial Effluents,” Water SA, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2007, pp. 459-465.
[38] M. B. Chougule, A. I. Wasif and V. R. Naik, “Assessment of Water Quality Index (WQI) for Monitoring Pollution of River Panchganga at Ichalkaranji,” Proceedings of International Conference on Energy and Environment,” Chandigarh, March 2009, pp. 122-127.
[39] N. Karakaya and F. Evrendilek, “Water Quality Time Series for Big Melen Stream (Turkey): Its Decomposition Analysis and Comparison to Upstream,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 165, No. 1-4, 2009, pp. 125-136.
[40] S. K. Mohanty, “Water Quality Index of Four Religious Ponds and its Seasonal Variation in the Temple City, Bhuvaneshwar,” In: A. Kumar, Ed., Water pollution, APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 2004, pp. 211-218.
[41] C. R. Ramakrishnaiah, C. Sadashivaiah and G. Ranganna, “Assessment of Water Quality Index for the Ground Water in Tumkur Taluk,” E-Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2009, pp. 523-530.
[42] M. V. Ahipathy and E. T. Puttaiah, “Ecological Characteristics of Vrishabhavathy River in Bangalore (India),” Environmental geology, Vol. 49, No. 8, 2006, pp. 1217-1222.
[43] J. Rozoska, “Euphrates and Tigris Mesopotamian Ecology and Destiny,” In: Dr Junk, Ed., Monographiae Biologicae, The Hague-Boston-London, 1980.
[44] R. J. Wilcock, G. B. McBride, J. W. Nagels and G. L. Northcott, “Water Quality in a Polluted Lowland Stream with Chronically Depressed Dissolved Oxygen: Causes and Effects,” New Zealand J Mainer and Freshwater Research, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1995, pp. 277-288.
[45] J. K. Pradeep, “Hydrogeology and Quality of Ground Water around Hirapur, District Sagar (M.P.),” Pollution Research, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1998, pp. 91-94.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.