Qualitative Research on Emergency Medicine Physicians: A Literature Review


Aim: This study aims to review the qualitative research studying Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians in Emergency Departments (ED). Background: Qualitative research aims to study complex social phenomena by other means than quantification often through verbal or observational investigation. EM is a highly complex medical and social environment that has been investigated through qualitative methodologies. A literature review is needed to show what qualitative studies illuminate about EM and why this work is important to develop EM as a complex organizational and communicative practice. Methods: Electronic databases of English peer-reviewed articles were searched from 1971 to 2012 using Medline through PubMed and PsychINFO. This search was supplemented with hand-searches of Academic Emergency Medicine and Emergency Medicine Journal from 1999 to 2012 and cross references were reviewed. The key words used were emergency medicine, qualitative, ethnography, observation, interview, video, anthropology, simulation, and simulation-based. Results: 820 papers were identified and 46 studies were included in this review. This literature review found that the reviewed qualitative studies on EM physicians were designed using the following strategies of inquiry: Ethnography, mixed methods, action research, grounded theory, phenomenology, content analysis, discourse analysis, and critical incident analysis. The reviewed studies were categorized into four main themes: Education and training, communication, professional roles, and organizational factors, and into 12 sub-themes. Conclusion: The strength of qualitative research is its ability to grasp and operationalize complex relations within EM. Although qualitative research methodologies have gained in rigor in recent years and few researchers would question their value in studying complex medical and social phenomena, rigorous design in qualitative studies is needed. Qualitative research studies that stick with one strategy of inquiry that they follow closely are likely to yield more valid studies.

Share and Cite:

Paltved, C. and Musaeus, P. (2012) Qualitative Research on Emergency Medicine Physicians: A Literature Review. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 3, 772-789. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.37A136.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] S. Schenkel, “Promoting Patient Safety and Preventing Medical Error in Emergency Departments,” Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 11, 2000, pp. 1204-1222. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2000.tb00466.x
[2] D. Piquette, S. Reeves and V. R. Leblanc, “Interprofessional Intensive Care Unit Team Interactions and Medical Crises: A Qualitative Study,” Journal of Interprofessional Care, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2009, pp. 273-285. doi:10.1080/13561820802697818
[3] K. Carroll, R. Iedema and R. Kerridge, “Reshaping ICU Ward Round Practices Using Video-Reflexive Ethnography,” Qualitative Health Research, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2008, pp. 380-390. doi:10.1177/1049732307313430
[4] J. O. Jansen and B. H. Cuthbertson, “Detecting Critical Illness Outside the ICU: The Role of Track and Trigger Systems,” Current Opinion in Critical Care, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2010, pp. 184-190. doi:10.1097/MCC.0b013e328338844e
[5] G. J. Kuhn, P. Shayne, W. C. Coates, J. Fisher, M. Lin, L. A. Maggio, et al., “Critical Appraisal of Emergency Medicine Educational Research: The Best Publications of 2009,” Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 17, Suppl. 2, 2010, pp. S16-S25.
[6] P. Shayne, W. C. Coates, S. E. Farrell, G. J. Kuhn, M. Lin, L. A. Maggio, et al., “Critical Appraisal of Emergency Medicine Educational Research: The Best Publications of 2010,” Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 10, 2011, pp. 1081-1089. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2011.01191.x
[7] L. S. Binder and D. M. Chapman, “Qualitative Research Methodologies in Emergency Medicine,” Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 12, 1995, pp. 1098-1102. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.1995.tb03156.x
[8] S. Cooper and R. Endacott, “Generic Qualitative Research: A Design for Qualitative Research in Emergency Care?” Emergency Medicine Journal, Vol. 24, No. 12, 2007, pp. 816-819. doi:10.1136/emj.2007.050641
[9] A. Kuper, L. Lingard and W. Levinson, “Critically Appraising Qualitative Research,” BMJ, Vol. 337, 2008, p. a1035. doi:10.1136/bmj.a1035
[10] N. Britten, “Qualitative Research on Health Communicationication: What Can It Contribute?” Patient Education and Counseling, Vol. 82, No. 3, 2011, pp. 384-388. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2010.12.021
[11] S. B. Issenberg, W. C. McGaghie, E. R. Petrusa, G. D. Lee and R. J. Scalese, “Features and Uses of High-Fidelity Medical Simulations That Lead to Effective Learning: A BEME Systematic Review,” Medical Teacher, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2005, pp. 10-28. doi:10.1080/01421590500046924
[12] S. B. Ssenberg, C. Ringsted, D. Ostergaard and P. Dieckmann, “Setting a Research Agenda for Simulation-Based Healthcare Education: A Synthesis of the Outcome from an Utstein Style Meeting,” Simulation in Healthcare, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2011, pp. 155-167. doi:10.1097/SIH.0b013e3182207c24
[13] T. Greenhalgh, “Papers That Summarise Other Papers, (Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses),” BMJ, Vol. 315, No. 7109, 1997, pp. 672-675. doi:10.1136/bmj.315.7109.672
[14] P. J. Zed, B. H. Rowe, P. S. Loewen and R. B. Abu-Laban, “Systematic Reviews in Emergency Medicine: Part I. Background and General Principles for Locating and Critically Appraising Reviews,” Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 5, 2003, pp. 331-335.
[15] P. Atkinson and L. Pugley, “Making Sense of Ethnography and Medical Education,” Medical Education, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2005, pp. 228-234. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.02070.x
[16] J. P. Spradley, “The Ethnographic Interview,” Wadsworth, 1979.
[17] E. Murphy and R. Dingwall, “Qualitative Methods in Health Services Research,” In: Blach N, Ed., Health Services Research Methods: A Guide to Best Practice, MJ Publishing, 1998.
[18] J. P. Spradley, “Participant Observation,” Wadsworth, 1980.
[19] J. W. Cresswell and V. L. Plano Clark, “Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research,” 2nd Edition, Sage, 2011.
[20] D. L. Morgan, “Paradigms Lost and Paradigms Regained: Methodological Implications of Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods,” Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2007, pp. 48-76. doi:10.1177/2345678906292462
[21] S. Cooper, J. Porter and R. Endacott, “Mixed Methods Research: A Design for Emergency Care Research?” Emergency Medicine Journal, Vol. 28, No. 8, 2011, pp. 682-685. doi:10.1136/emj.2010.096321
[22] L. Lingard, M. Albert and W. Levinson, “Grounded Theory, Mixed Methods, and Action Research,” BMJ, Vol. 337, 2008, p. a567. doi:10.1136/bmj.39602.690162.47
[23] L. Forsythe, “Action Research, Simulation, Team Communication, and Bringing the Tacit into Voice Society for Simulation in Healthcare,” Simulation in Healthcare, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2009, pp. 143-148. doi:10.1097/SIH.0b013e3181986814
[24] R. Endacott, S. Cooper, R. Sheaff, J. Padmore and G. Blakely, “Improving Emergency Care Pathways: An Action Research Approach,” Emergency Medicine Journal, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2011, pp. 203-207. doi:10.1136/emj.2009.082859
[25] J. Meyer, “Using Qualitative Methods in Health Related Action Research,” BMJ, Vol. 320, 2000, pp. 178-181. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7228.178
[26] B. G. Glaser and A. L. Strauss, “The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research,” Aldine, Chicago, 1967.
[27] K. Charmaz, “Constructing Grounded Theory. A Practical Guide through Qualitative Analysis,” SAGE Publications Ltd., 2006.
[28] M. Tavakol, S. Torabi and A. A. Zeinaloo, “Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research,” Medical Education Online, Vol. 11, No. 30, 2006, pp. 1-6.
[29] A. Bryant, “The SAGE Handbook of Grounded Theory,” 2010.
[30] T. J. Kennedy and L. A. Lingard, “Making Sense of Grounded Theory in Medical Education,” Medical Education, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2006, pp. 101-108. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02378.x
[31] M. Van Manen, “‘Doing’ Phenomenological Research and Writing: An Introduction,” No. 7, 1984, pp. 1-29.
[32] R. H. Hycner, “Some Guidelines for the Phenomenological Analysis of Interview Data,” Human Studies, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1985, pp. 279-303. doi:10.1007/BF00142995
[33] H. F. Hsieh and S. Shannon, “Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis,” Qualitative Health Research, Vol. 15, No. 9, 2005, pp. 1277-1288. doi:10.1177/1049732305276687
[34] Y. Zhang and B. M. Wildemuth, “Qualitative Analysis of Content,” In: B. M. Wildemuth, Ed., Applications of Social Research Methods to Questions in Information and Library Science, Libraries Unlimited, 2009. pp. 1-12.
[35] V. Braun and V. Clarke, “Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology,” Qualitative Research in Psychology, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2006, pp. 77-101. doi:10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
[36] J. P. Gee, “An Introduction to Discourse Analysis: Theory and Method,” Routledge, 2005.
[37] “The Discourse of Hospital Communication,” Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
[38] W. T. Branch, “Use of Critical Incident Reports in Medical Education,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1063-1067. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.00231.x
[39] J. C. Flanagan, “The Critical Incident Technique,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 51, No. 4, 1954, pp. 327-358. doi:10.1037/h0061470
[40] M. Woloshynowych, S. Rogers, S. Taylor-Adams and C. Vincent, “The Investigation and Analysis of Critical Incidents and Adverse Events in Healthcare,” Health Technology Assessment, Vol. 9, No. 19, 2005, pp. 1-158.
[41] E. Goldman, M. Plack, C. Roche, J. Smith and C. Turley, “Learning in a Chaotic Environment,” Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 21, No. 7, 2009, pp. 555-574. doi:10.1108/13665620910985540
[42] E. F. Goldman, M. M. Plack, C. N. Roche, J. P. Smith and C. L. Turley, “Learning Clinical versus Leadership Competencies in the Emergency Department: Strategies, Challenges, and Supports of Emergency Medicine Residents,” Journal of Graduate Medical Education, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2011, pp. 320-325.
[43] L. Thurgur, G. Bandiera, S. Lee and R. Tiberius, “What Do Emergency Medicine Learners Want from Their Teachers? A Multicenter Focus Group Analysis,” Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 9, 2005, pp. 856-861. doi:10.1197/j.aem.2005.04.022
[44] G. Bandiera, S. Lee and R. Tiberius, “Creating Effective Learning in Today’s Emergency Departments: How Accomplished Teachers Get It Done,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2005, pp. 253-261. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2004.08.007
[45] D. M. Kaufman and K. V. Mann, “Teaching and Learning in Medical Education: How Theory Can Inform Practice,” In: T. Swanwick, Ed., Understanding Medical Education, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, pp. 16-36.
[46] G. A. Jelinek, T. J. Weiland and C. Mackinlay, “Supervision and Feedback for Junior Medical Staff in Australian Emergency Departments: Findings from the Emergency Medicine Capacity Assessment Study,” BMC Medical Education, Vol. 10, 2010, p. 74. doi:10.1186/1472-6920-10-74
[47] G. A. Jelinek, T. Weiland and C. Mackinlay, “The Emergency Medicine Capacity Assessment Study: Perceived Resource Requirements to Support a Major Increase in Intern Numbers in Australian Emergency Departments,” Emergency Medicine Australasia, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2011, pp. 76-83. doi:10.1111/j.1742-6723.2010.01377.x
[48] D. A. Kilroy, “Clinical Supervision in the Emergency Department: A Critical Incident Study,” Emergency Medicine Journal, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2006, pp. 105-108. doi:10.1136/emj.2004.022913
[49] T. J. Kennedy, L. Lingard, G. R. Baker, L. Kitchen and G. Regehr, “Clinical Oversight: Conceptualizing the Relationship between Supervision and Safety,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 8, 2007, pp. 1080-1085. doi:10.1007/s11606-007-0179-3
[50] T. J. Kennedy, G. Regehr, G. R. Baker and L. Lingard, “Point-of-Care Assessment of Medical Trainee Competence for Independent Clinical Work,” Academic Medicine, Vol. 83, No. 10, 2008, pp. S89-S92. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e318183c8b7
[51] T. J. Kennedy, G. Regehr, G. R. Baker and L. Lingard, “Preserving Professional Credibility: Grounded Theory Study of Medical Trainees’ Requests for Clinical Support,” BMJ, Vol. 338, 2009, p. b128. doi:10.1136/bmj.b128
[52] G. Bandiera and D. Lendrum, “Dispatches from the Front: Emergency Medicine Teachers’ Perceptions of Competency-Based Education,” Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2011, pp. 155-161.
[53] M. L. Dorfsman and A. B. Wolfson, “Direct Observation of Residents in the Emergency Department: A Structured Educational Program,” Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2009, pp. 343-351. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00362.x
[54] A. W. Dent, T. J. Weiland and D. Paltridge, “Australasian Emergency Physicians: A Learning and Educational Needs Analysis. Part five: Barriers to CPD Experienced by FACEM, and Attitudes to the ACEM MOPS Programme,” Emergency Medicine Australasia, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2008, pp. 339-346. doi:10.1111/j.1742-6723.2007.01042.x
[55] D. Paltridge, A. W. Dent and T. J. Weiland, “Australasian Emergency Physicians: A Learning and Educational Needs Analysis. Part two: Confidence of FACEM for Tasks and Skills,” Emergency Medicine Australasia, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2008, pp. 58-65. doi:10.1111/j.1742-6723.2007.01037.x
[56] C. C. Schubert, T. K. Denmark, B. Crandall, A. Grome and J. Pappas, “Characterizing Novice-Expert Differences in Macrocognition: An Exploratory Study of Cognitive Work in the Emergency Department,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 61, No. 1, 2012, pp. 96-109.
[57] S. Schenkel, K. K. Rahul, M. M. Rosenthal, K. M. Sutcliffe and E. Lewton, “Resident Perceptions of Medical Errors in the Emergency Department,” Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 10, No, 12, 2003, pp. 1318-1324. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2003.tb00004.x
[58] A. Short, A. Holdgate, N. Ahern and J. Morris, “Enhancing Research Interest and Collaboration in the Interdisciplinary Context of Emergency Care,” Journal of Interprofessional Care, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2009, pp. 156-168. doi:10.1080/13561820802675566
[59] J. Anderst and M. D. Dowd, “Comparative Needs in Child Abuse Education and Resources: Perceptions from Three Medical Specialties,” Medical Education Online, Vol. 15, 2010.
[60] S. Murray, P. Lazure and C. Pullen, P. Maltais and P. Dorian, “Atrial Fibrillation Care: Challenges in Clinical Practice and Educational Needs Assessment,” Canadian Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2011, pp. 98-104. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2010.12.006
[61] A. K. Smith, J. Fisher, M. A. Schonberg, D. J. Pallin, S. D. Block, L. Forrow, et al., “Am I Doing the Right Thing? Provider Perspectives on Improving Palliative Care in the Emergency Department,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2009, pp. 86-93. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.08.022
[62] S. C. Stone, S. Mohanty, C. R. Grudzen, J. Shoenberger, S. Asch, K. Kubricek, et al., “Emergency Medicine Physicians’ Perspectives of Providing Palliative Care in an Emergency Department,” Journal of Palliative Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 12, 2011, pp. 1333-1338. doi:10.1089/jpm.2011.0106
[63] W. F. Bond, L. M. Deitrick, M. Eberhardt, G. C. Barr, B. G. Kane, C. C. Worrilow, et al., “Cognitive versus Technical Debriefing after Simulation Training,” Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2006, pp. 276-283. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2006.tb01692.x
[64] W. F. Bond, L. M. Deitrick, D. C. Arnold, M. Kostenbader, G. C. Barr, S. R. Kimmel, et al., “Using Simulation to Instruct Emergency Medicine Residents in Cognitive Forcing Strategies,” Academic Medicine, Vol. 79, No. 5, 2004, pp. 438-446. doi:10.1097/00001888-200405000-00014
[65] L. A. Riesenberg, J. Leitzsch, J. L. Massucci, J. Jaeger, J. C. Rosenfeld, C. Patow, et al., “Residents’ and Attending Physicians’ Handoffs: A Systematic Review of the Literature,” Academic Medicine, Vol. 84, No. 12, 2009, pp. 1775-1787. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181bf51a6
[66] J. Apker, L. A. Mallak and S. C. Gibson, “Communicating in the ‘Gray Zone’: Perceptions about Emergency Physician Hospitalist Handoffs and Patient Safety,” Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 10, 2007, pp. 884-894.
[67] J. Apker, K. M. Propp and W. S. Ford, “Investigating the Effect of Nurse-Team Communication on Nurse Turnover: Relationships among Communication Processes, Identification, and Intent to Leave,” Health Communication, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2010, pp. 106-114. doi:10.1080/10410230802676508
[68] E. Eisenberg, A. G. Murphy, K. M. Sutcliffe, R. Wears, S. P. Schenkel and M. Vanderhoef, “Communication in Emergency Medicine: Implications for Patient Safety,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 72, No. 4, 2005, pp. 390-413. doi:10.1080/03637750500322602
[69] L. I. Horwitz, T. Meredith, J. D. Schuur, N. R. Shah, R. G. Kulkarni and G. Y. Jenq, “Dropping the Baton: A Qualitative Analysis of Failures during the Transition from Emergency Department to Inpatient Care,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 53, No. 6, 2009, pp. 701-710. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.05.007
[70] R. H. Lawrence, A. M. Tomolo, A. P. Garlisi and D. C. Aron, “Conceptualizing Handover Strategies at Change of Shift in the Emergency Department: A Grounded Theory Study,” BMC Health Services Research, Vol. 8, 2008, p. 256. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-8-256
[71] R. L. Wears and S. J. Perry, “Discourse and Process Analyses of Shift Change Handoffs in Emergency Departments,” 2010, pp. 953-956.
[72] S. M. Evans, A. Murray, I. Patrick, M. Fitzgerald, S. Smith and P. Cameron, “Clinical Handover in the Trauma Setting: A Qualitative Study of Paramedics and Trauma Team Members,” BMJ Quality and Safety, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2010, p. e57. doi:10.1136/qshc.2009.039073
[73] K. M. Terrell and D. K. Miller, “Strategies to Improve Care Transitions between Nursing Home and Emergency Departments,” Journal of American Medical Directors Association, Vol. 12, No. 8, 2011, pp. 602-605. doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2010.09.007
[74] C. Kessler, B. M. Kutka and C. Badillo, “Consultation in the Emergency Department: A Qualitative Analysis and Review,” The Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 6, 2012, pp. 704-711. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2011.01.025
[75] J. Currie and R. Crouch, “How Far is Too Far? Exploring the Perceptions of the Professions on Their Current and Future Roles in Emergency Care,” Emergency Medicine Journal, Vol. 25, No. 6, 2008, pp. 335-339. doi:10.1136/emj.2007.047332
[76] C. C. Tye and F. M. Ross, “Blurring Boundaries: Professional Perspectives of the Emergency Nurse Practitioner Role in a Major Accident and Emergency Department,” Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 31, No. 5, 2000, pp. 1089-1096. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.2000.01380.x
[77] L. Flowerdew, R. Brown, S. Russ, C. Vincent and M. Woloshynowych, “Teams under Pressure in the Emergency Department: An Interview Study,” Emergency Medicine Journal, Vol. 29, No. 12, 2012, p. e2.
[78] M. Hjortdahl, A. H. Ringen, A. C. Naess and T. Wisborg, “Leadership is the Essential Non-Technical Skill in the Trauma Team—Results of a Qualitative Study,” Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, Vol. 17, 2009, p. 48. doi:10.1186/1757-7241-17-48
[79] Y. Xiao, F. J. Seagull, C. F. Mackenzie and K. Klein, “Adaptive Leadership in Trauma Resuscitation Teams: A Grounded Theory Approach to Video Analysis,” Cognition, Technology & Work, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2004, pp. 154-164. doi:10.1007/s10111-004-0157-z
[80] J. Dyas, P. Ayres, M. Airey and J. Connelly, “Management of Major Trauma: Changes Required for Improvement,” Quality in Health Care, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1999, pp. 78-85. doi:10.1136/qshc.8.2.78
[81] E. M. Eisenberg, J. Baglia and J. E. Pynes, “Transforming Emergency Medicine through Narrative: Qualitative Action Research at a Community Hospital,” Health Communication, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2006, pp. 197-208. doi:10.1207/s15327027hc1903_2
[82] A. Toma, C. M. Bensimon, K. N. Dainty, G. D. Rubenfeld, L. J. Morrison and S. C. Brooks, “Perceived Barriers to Therapeutic Hypothermia for Patients Resuscitated from Cardiac Arrest: A Qualitative Study of Emergency Department and Critical Care Workers,” Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 2, 2010, pp. 504-509. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181cb0a02
[83] S. S. Lamont, “‘See and Treat’: Spreading Like Wildfire? A Qualitative Study into Factors Affecting Its Introduction and Spread,” Emergency Medicine Journal, Vol. 22, No. 8, 2005, pp. 548-552. doi:10.1136/emj.2004.016303
[84] A. Laxmisan, F. Hakimzada, O. R. Sayan, R. A. Green, J. Zhang and V. L. Patel, “The Multitasking Clinician: Decision-Making and Cognitive Demand during and after Team Handoffs in Emergency Care,” International Journal of Medical Informatics, Vol. 76, No. 11-12, 2007, pp. 801-811. doi:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2006.09.019
[85] P. Mazzocato, H. H. Forsberg and U. T. Schwarz, “Team Behaviors in Emergency Care: A Qualitative Study Using Behavior Analysis of What Makes Team Work,” Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, Vol. 19, 2011, p. 70. doi:10.1186/1757-7241-19-70
[86] P. Nugus, A. Holdgate, M. Fry, R. Forero, S. McCarthy and J. Braithwaite, “Work Pressure and Patient Flow Management in the Emergency Department: Findings from an Ethnographic Study,” Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 10, 2011, pp. 1045-1052. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2011.01171.x
[87] P. Nugus and J. Braithwaite, “The Dynamic Interaction of Quality and Efficiency in the Emergency Department: Squaring the Circle?” Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 70, No. 4, 2010, pp. 511-517. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.11.001
[88] P. Nugus and R. Forero, “Understanding Interdepartmental and Organizational Work in the Emergency Department: An Ethnographic Approach,” International Emergency Nursing, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2011, pp. 69-74. doi:10.1016/j.ienj.2010.03.001
[89] M. Hammersley, “What’s Wrong with Ethnography? Methodological explorations,” Routledge, 1987.
[90] N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln, “Handbook of Qualitative Research,” 2nd Edition, Sage Publications, Inc., London, 2000.
[91] A. Harden, J. Garcia, S. Oliver, R. Rees, J. Shepherd, G. Brunton, et al., “Applying Systematic Review Methods to Studies of People’s Views: An Example from Public Health Research,” Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, Vol. 58, No. 9, 2004, pp. 794-800. doi:10.1136/jech.2003.014829
[92] S. Goodacre, “Critical Appraisal for Emergency Medicine: 6 Systematic Reviews,” Emergency Medicine Journal, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2009, pp. 114-116. doi:10.1136/emj.2007.057356
[93] A. Kuper, S. Reeves and W. Levinson, “An Introduction to Reading and Appraising Qualitative Research,” BMJ, Vol. 337, 2008, p. a288. doi:10.1136/bmj.a288
[94] B. Stige, K. Malterud and T. Midtgarden, “Toward an Agenda for Evaluation of Qualitative Research,” Adv Qual Method, Vol. 19, No. 10, 2009, pp. 1504-1516.
[95] C. Pope, S. Ziebland and N. Mays, “Qualitative Research in Health Care. Analysing Qualitative Data,” BMJ, Vol. 320, No. 7227, 2000, pp. 114-116. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7227.114
[96] S. Cooper, R. Endacott and Y. Chapman, “Qualitative Research: Specific Designs for Qualitative Research in Emergency Care?” Emergency Medicine Journal, Vol. 26, No. 11, 2009, pp. 773-776. doi:10.1136/emj.2008.071159
[97] P. J. Zed, B. H. Rowe, P. S. Loewen and R. B. Abu-Laban, “Systematic Reviews in Emergency Medicine: Part II. Critical Appraisal of Review Quality, Data Synthesis and Result Interpretation,” Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 6, 2003, pp. 406-411.
[98] C. Kessler and J. H. Burton, “Moving beyond Confidence and Competence: Educational Outcomes Research in Emergency Medicine,” Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 18, Suppl. 2, 2011, pp. S25-S26. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2011.01169.x
[99] R. L. Shaw, A. Booth, A. J. Sutton, T. Miller, J. A. Smith, B. Young, et al., “Finding Qualitative Research: An Evaluation of Search Strategies,” BMC Medical Research Methodology, Vol. 4, 2006, p. 5. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-4-5
[100] J. Popay, A. Rogers and G. Williams, “Rationale and Standards for the Systematic Review of Qualitative Literature in Health Services Research,” Qualitative Health Research, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1998, pp. 341-351. doi:10.1177/104973239800800305
[101] C. Heath, P. Luff and M. S. Svensson, “Video and Qualitative Research: Analysing Medical Practice and Interaction,” Medical Education, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2007, pp. 109-116. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02641.x
[102] R. Iedema, D. Long, R. Forsyth and B. B. Lee, “Visibilising Clinical Work: Video Ethnography in the Contemporary Hospital,” Health Sociology Review, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2006, pp. 156-168. doi:10.5172/hesr.2006.15.2.156
[103] J. Apker, K. M. Propp and W. S. Ford, “Investigating the Effect of Nurse-Team Communication on Nurse Turnover: Relationships among Communication Processes, Identification, and Intent to Leave,” Health Communication, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2009, pp. 106-114. doi:10.1080/10410230802676508
[104] J. Fisher, M. J. Steggal and C. L. Cox, “Developing the A&E Nurse Practitioner Role,” Emergency Nursing, Vol. 13, No. 10, 2006, pp. 26-31.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.